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Rostislav Kouznetsov, Priit Tisler, Timo Palo, and Timo Vihma

that the same radiative cooling might result in different thickness of katabatic flow depending on the flow history. Thinner katabatic flows have lower wind speed and weaker near-surface mixing, which results in stronger near-surface temperature gradients but smaller heat fluxes. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the staff of the Finnish Antarctic Research Program for managing and assistance in the field work. This study has been supported by the EC FP7 Project ERC PBL-PMES (227915), and by the

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Qing Yang, Larry K. Berg, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome D. Fast, Rob K. Newsom, Mark Stoelinga, and Catherine Finley

. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmosphere: RRTM, a validated correlated- k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16 663 – 16 682 . Pleim , J. E. , and A. Xiu , 1995 : Development and testing of a surface flux and planetary boundary layer model for application in mesoscale models . J. Appl. Meteor. , 34 , 16 – 32 . Shin , H. H. , and S.-Y. Hong , 2011 : Intercomparison of planetary boundary-layer parametrizations in the WRF model for a single day

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B. Van Dam, D. Helmig, W. Neff, and L. Kramer

conditions at SP when compared with sodar measurements. This model was tested against sodar measurements more recently at SP using vertical temperature gradients from a 22-m tower and rawinsonde temperature profiles. It was found that model results were representative of the BLD during very stable conditions but were overestimates in other cases. In this expression, H is only weakly dependent on vertical static stability. The Pollard et al. (1973) model assumes a sensible heat flux H s = ρc p of

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Elías Lau, Scott McLaughlin, Frank Pratte, Bob Weber, David Merritt, Maikel Wise, Gary Zimmerman, Matthew James, and Megan Sloan

height ( Hashiguchi et al. 1995 ; Cohn and Angevine 2000 ), cold front characterization ( Browning et al. 1998 ), heat and momentum fluxes ( Angevine et al. 1993 ), classification of precipitating clouds ( Williams et al. 1995 ), and rainfall drop size distributions ( Schafer et al. 2002 ). Operational applications include weather forecasting, air quality forecasting for urban areas, and wind shear determination at airports. Typical BL RWPs currently deployed utilize antenna arrays, either several

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Leslie M. Hartten and Paul E. Johnston

ocean and the atmosphere as well as radiative processes within the atmosphere. These attributes are poorly measured by satellites. It is possible that cloud depths could be calculated by using wind-profiler reflectivities to determine z i and ceilometers to measure cloud-base heights. Initial research along those lines ( Piña 2010 ; Lujan 2011 ) has incidentally revealed deep, long-lasting voids in profiler observations of the Sc-topped MBL, which we explore here. 2. Basic profiler observations

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