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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

-use shift. Long-term temperature and land-cover datasets will be employed to examine the linking trends. Eddy flux tower data will be compiled over the region along with satellite data and a crop model to quantify the different biogeophysical characteristics associated with the major LULC changes. The goal of this paper is to estimate a net radiative forcing from several perspectives as a result of the LULC change. The analyses will also be supported by skin temperature and albedo observations from

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

-surface temperatures and precipitation. The LULCC-induced warming is significantly driven by changes in surface hydrology due to reduced ET, while radiative forcing plays a secondary role ( Lawrence and Chase 2010 ). Most previous studies focused on the influence of LULCC on the surface air temperature, precipitation, and land–atmosphere fluxes (e.g., Brovkin et al. 1999 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Oleson et al. 2004 ; Douglas et al. 2006 ; Lobell et al. 2006 ; Bala et al. 2007 ; Lee et al. 2009 ). Only a few

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

coupled to a land surface and urban modeling system that aimed to address emerging issues in urban areas ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Our experiment uses the Noah land surface model (LSM) to model the land surface ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), thereby providing surface energy fluxes and surface skin temperatures that serve as the boundary conditions for the atmospheric model. While the original version of Noah LSM has a bulk parameterization for urban land use, our experiment uses a single-layer UCM to

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

heat fluxes. Soil and vegetation fluxes are calculated separately and then linearly combined into the total sensible and latent heat fluxes that form the lower boundary condition of the atmospheric model. A canopy turbulence model is used to calculate within canopy air temperatures and humidity. CABLE includes a multilayer soil model with six layers, with the deepest layer at 2.872 m. There are nine soil types used to prescribe hydraulic and thermal characteristics. The flow of water is

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

tile instead of across the entire grid cell). The mixture approach is a variation of the mosaic approach, in which the latent and sensible heat fluxes from the different tiles of the same grid cell interact together ( Koster and Suarez 1992 ). The statistical–dynamical approach aims to represent the full range of heterogeneity across the entire grid cell through continuous probability density functions ( Avissar 1992 ). The resulting equations can be integrated analytically for very simplified

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

1. Introduction Human-induced land-use change (LUC), such as the conversion of natural land cover to agriculture, transforms the land surface, altering its structure and influencing biogeophysical processes such as albedo, leaf area index (LAI), seasonality, surface roughness, and moisture fluxes. This has implications for the surface energy balance, altering shortwave radiation (SW) and the partitioning of latent and sensible heat (e.g., Brovkin et al. 2009 ; Bala et al. 2007 ; Boisier et

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

-cover changes varies over Europe; globally, the situation is even more complicated. Highly resolved Earth system models should be used to study the interplay among atmospheric greenhouse gases, radiative fluxes, and heat fluxes. Studies of the effect on radiative forcing from changes in land use are made (e.g., Jones et al. 2015 ); this should be pursued further, especially at higher model resolution. 5.4. How can the biogeophysical forcing better be constrained? This study provides some suggestions, but

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