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Laura M. Hinkelman

-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes and surface temperature in the context of climate variability. Applications of MERRA data for polar studies include the work of La and Park (2016) on the effect of clouds on phytoplankton in Antarctica, as well as a paper by Letterly et al. (2016) concerning the impact of winter clouds on summer sea ice in the Arctic. Hundreds of other papers relying on MERRA data are in the literature. While use of MERRA continues, the number of studies based on MERRA-2 has grown

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow and Mark A. Miller

et al. 2009 ; Parding et al. 2011 ; Miller et al. 2012 ; Collow et al. 2016a ). These studies have produced either heating rate profiles or “bulk” measurements of the net radiative heating of the column, using the vertical cross-atmosphere radiative flux divergence (RFD). The RFD is presented in watts per meter squared and is defined so that net fluxes at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are a positive quantity when there is net radiation transfer into the column. This sign

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C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, V. Buchard, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, R. Govindaraju, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, Y. Shinozuka, and C. J. Flynn

analyzed aerosol fields that are radiatively coupled to the atmosphere. To our knowledge, this is the first multidecadal reanalysis within which meteorological and aerosol observations are jointly assimilated into a global assimilation system, although other operational forecasting centers are actively developing similar capabilities (e.g., Benedetti et al. 2009 ; Sekiyama et al. 2010 ; Lynch et al. 2016 ). Previously, the GMAO had performed an offline aerosol reanalysis (the MERRA Aerosol

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Natalie P. Thomas, Michael G. Bosilovich, Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Amin Dezfuli, and Sarith P. Mahanama

order to account for the local variability of temperature. Examined variables include low-level winds, 500-hPa heights, vertically integrated moisture transport, precipitation, root-zone soil moisture, sensible and latent heat flux, total precipitable water, 2-m specific humidity, downwelling longwave flux, cloud cover, and shortwave and longwave cloud radiative effect (CRE). Shortwave CRE (SWCRE) is calculated as the difference between the surface net downward shortwave flux (SWGNT, using MERRA-2

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Richard I. Cullather and Sophie M. J. Nowicki

these data. Previous studies have focused on the presence of intense North Atlantic atmospheric blocking events (e.g., Rajewicz and Marshall 2014 ; Häkkinen et al. 2014 ; McLeod and Mote 2016 ). These conditions may preferentially allow for an enhanced solar radiative flux to reach the ice sheet surface and allow for albedo feedback processes to promote large-scale melting. Alternatively, Bennartz et al. (2013) identified the importance of warm air advection and the role of clouds in

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Krzysztof Wargan and Lawrence Coy

( Son and Polvani 2007 ; Erler and Wirth 2011 ) and radiative processes ( Randel et al. 2007 ). A relationship between the strength of the TIL and the occurrences of double tropopauses in the extratropics was explored by Peevey et al. (2014) , who demonstrated the role of the warm conveyor belt in establishing it. In addition, Kunkel et al. (2014) explored a possible contribution to the TIL from gravity waves using baroclinic life cycle simulations. Birner (2010) identified the vertical

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Clara S. Draper, Rolf H. Reichle, and Randal D. Koster

partitioning of incident surface radiation between latent heat (LH) and sensible heat (SH) fluxes back to the atmosphere. Reichle et al. (2017a) show that both MERRA-2 and MERRA-Land have improved upon the land surface hydrology of MERRA, showing better agreement with independent observational time series of soil moisture, terrestrial water storage, streamflow, and snow amount. Here, we extend this work, by evaluating the MERRA-2 surface energy budget and 2-m temperatures over land. In particular, we

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, Lawrence Takacs, Andrea Molod, and David Mocko

heat and latent heat are anticorrelated, a signature that soil moisture is controlling the partitioning of surface net radiative input. Likewise, the net longwave and net shortwave radiations are anticorrelated, suggesting that when cloudiness decreases (increases) the increased (decreased) shortwave absorption is countered (augmented) by less (more) downward longwave radiation from clouds. The climatological net surface flux is small (0.6 W m −2 ) as are the annual anomalies in Fig. 14 . Fig . 14

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Jason B. Roberts

from model physics formulation but also from the quality of the forcing data ( Badgley et al. 2015 ). Precipitation datasets [e.g., GPCC, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), and others] differ in sampling, gauge undercatch, and data quality. More problematic is near-surface meteorology and radiative forcing. These variables are taken from reanalyses also but are bias adjusted using surface observations and satellite radiative fluxes (e.g., Sheffield et al. 2006 ; Weedon et al. 2011

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

. Sullivan , 2002 : Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer reflectance channels . J. Geophys. Res. , 107 , 4702 , doi: 10.1029/2001JD002035 . Hoch , S. W. , 2005 : Radiative flux divergence in the surface boundary layer. A study based on observations at Summit, Greenland. Ph.D. dissertation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 164 pp. Holben , B. , and Coauthors , 1998 : AERONET—A federated instrument network and data

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