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Jannik Wilhelm, T. R. Akylas, Gergely Bölöni, Junhong Wei, Bruno Ribstein, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

is described by a quasigeostrophic potential vorticity that is affected by the GWs via pseudomomentum-flux convergence. For efficiency reasons, parameterizations use these theoretical results with drastic simplifications: (i) lateral GW propagation and the impact of horizontal mean flow gradients are ignored, and (ii) the time-dependent transient wave–mean flow interaction is replaced by an equilibrium picture where, because of the nonacceleration paradigm, GWs can only modify the resolved flow

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

propagation). Vertical levels where the component of the background wind in the direction of wave propagation equals the horizontal phase speed are called critical levels. There, either total or partial critical level filtering (see Teixeira 2014 ) impedes the vertical propagation of gravity waves (e.g., Whiteway and Duck 1996 ). Often, the waves break and deposit their momentum at these levels (e.g., Dörnbrack 1998 ). The dissipation leads to deviations from the radiative equilibrium flow state at

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

-destructive, reactive chlorine species (e.g., Solomon 1999 ). Numerical modeling of PSCs has always been a challenging task as chemical and dynamical aspects of their formation and existence must be combined (e.g., Reichardt et al. 2004 ). Their formation is primarily influenced by large-scale processes such as the radiative cooling inside the Arctic polar vortex. Moreover, it is known that both synoptic scale as well as mesoscale weather systems influence the formation of PSCs and the associated chemical

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Christoph Zülicke, Erich Becker, Vivien Matthias, Dieter H. W. Peters, Hauke Schmidt, Han-Li Liu, Laura de la Torre Ramos, and Daniel M. Mitchell

circulation by GWs is considered in order to derive a relation between temperature anomalies and the GW phase speed. According to Holton (1982) the zonal-mean residual circulation is driven by the zonal GW pseudomomentum flux (GWF) divergence The induced residual meridional circulation enforces a certain vertical motion through the continuity equation From the thermodynamic equation, which is modeled as a radiative relaxation to an equilibrium temperature T e , the dynamically forced temperature is

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