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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamic vegetation model; Meissner et al. 2003 ). Land carbon fluxes are calculated within MOSES and are allocated to vegetation and soil carbon pools ( Matthews et al. 2004 ). Ocean carbon is simulated by means of an Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project type inorganic carbon cycle model and a nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus marine ecosystem model ( Schmittner et al. 2008 ). Sediment processes are represented using an oxic

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Alex S. Gardner, Martin J. Sharp, Roy M. Koerner, Claude Labine, Sarah Boon, Shawn J. Marshall, David O. Burgess, and David Lewis

the major energy fluxes to and from the glacier surface in order to determine the energy available for melt. In either case, spatially distributed modeling is required to capture spatial and temporal patterns of surface melt ( Glover 1999 ; Arnold et al. 2006 ). Such modeling requires accurate downscaling of coarse-resolution temperature fields derived from climate models or reanalysis to produce near-surface air temperature fields with an appropriate spatial resolution. Downscaling can be

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J. Paul Spence, Michael Eby, and Andrew J. Weaver

, an increased freshwater flux creates more stably stratified surface water, which reduces deep water formation and its concomitant meridional heat transport, producing a cooling of Northern Hemisphere climate. Because the deep ocean requires centuries to millennia to reach a thermodynamic equilibrium ( Broecker 1991 ), computational constraints have historically limited the horizontal resolution of models used in previous studies to greater than 1° (latitude) × 1° (longitude). A number of

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Shawn J. Marshall and Martin J. Sharp

snow and ice melt as a function of air temperature ( Reeh 1991 ; Braithwaite 1995 ). Temperature-index models capitalize on the fact that air temperature is a strong indicator of net radiative and sensible heat energy available for melting ( Ohmura 2001 ). These models are widely used for mass balance calculations in ice sheet studies ( Letréguilly et al. 1991 ; Huybrechts et al. 1991 ; Pollard and Thompson 1997 ; Fabre et al. 1996 ; Huybrechts 2000; Hanna et al. 2005 ). Meltwater generated

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