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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

owing to the inclusion of radiative fluxes. The CAPE and CIN for an air parcel with properties averaged over the lowest 100 hPa (most unstable parcel) were ~2900 J kg −1 (~4781 J kg −1 ) and ~−175 J kg −1 (~−110 J kg −1 ), respectively. The mixed-layer lifting condensation level (LCL) was ~1030 m above ground level (AGL), level of free convection (LFC) ~2690 m AGL, and equilibrium level (EL) ~15 000 m AGL. The input wind profile was based on the analytic quarter-circle wind hodograph from Rotunno

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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Russ. S. Schumacher, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

to the frequent occurrence of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs; Velasco and Fritsch 1987 ; Laing and Fritsch 1997 ; Houze 2004 ; Zipser et al. 2006 ; Houze et al. 2015 ). Generally, convection initiation for MCSs in both continents involves the same key ingredients: 1) a poleward flux of low-level moisture from the Gulf of Mexico or the Amazon via the low-level jet (LLJ), 2) a capping inversion that prolongs the release of instability via westerly mid- to upper-level dry air subsidence

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

mechanisms have been proposed to explain the strength of the low-level moisture gradient leading to the formation of drylines. Frontogenesis caused by shearing deformation and confluence acting over the moisture fields is one of them ( Anthes et al. 1982 ; Ziegler et al. 1995 ). Drylines can also appear as a consequence of inhomogeneities in land cover type or soil conditions. For example, strong differences in soil moisture can lead to horizontal gradients in surface moisture fluxes which can directly

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