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David R. Ryglicki, Daniel Hodyss, and Gregory Rainwater

+ ∂ ( V ψ ⋅ V χ ) ∂ t = − c p θ ρ ⁡ ( V χ ⋅ ∇ Π ) + ( ζ + f ) ⁡ ( u χ υ ψ − υ χ u ψ ) + V ψ ⋅ ∂ V χ ∂ t − e w u χ − V χ ⋅ ∇ k χ − V χ ⋅ ∇ k ψ − V χ ⋅ ∇ ( V ψ ⋅ V χ ) − w ⁡ ( V χ ⋅ ∂ V ψ ∂ z ) − w   ∂ k χ ∂ z + R . The derivation of (18) can be found in appendix C . From left to right, the terms on the right-hand side are pressure gradient or baroclinic generation (pgrad); divergent-rotational wind conversion (conv); rotational flux across local changes in divergent winds (chitt); meridional

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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

atmosphere when including realistic longwave cooling due to the colder cloud-top emission temperature, but increases the local cloud-top cooling rate due to increased radiative flux divergence. The results suggest that the Eliassen framework is more appropriate when seeking to understand the impacts rather than a Carnot engine perspective. The actual maximum intensity of any particular ensemble member is sensitive to small moisture perturbations in the initial conditions, especially in the longwave

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

the right of the minimum I . They attribute this phenomenon to the fact that the outflow is modifying its own environment by reducing (enhancing) the υ t term in the equation for I counterclockwise (clockwise) of the region of strongest outflow. In this sense, the outflow is continuously “chasing” the region of lowest I but can never quite reach it. A number of studies have identified the flux convergence of angular momentum by the azimuthal eddies, or “eddy flux convergence” (EFC), as an

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Daniel Hodyss, Joshua H. Cossuth, Yi Jin, Kevin C. Viner, and Jerome M. Schmidt

. (2001) , and Ditchek et al. (2017) all focused on the dynamical evolution and eddy fluxes at upper levels of TCs in their respective outflow layers. Their work indicates that given a sufficiently large eddy-flux convergence aloft, the TC can intensify ( DeMaria et al. 1993 ). Specifically, the work by Hanley et al. (2001) indicates that there are differences between favorable and unfavorable locations for TC intensification, as the proximity of a TC to a passing upper-level trough may play a key

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

internally to CM1r18 was not used, in part for simplicity to remove any diurnal forcing and since the current domain, roughly 6000 km × 4000 km, is very large. In lieu of a diurnally varying radiation forcing, the simulations were carried out with Newtonian cooling capped at 2 K day −1 . To calculate the respective simulated brightness temperatures—both IR and WV—the CM1 output was passed to the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM; Van Delst 2013 ; Grasso et al. 2008 ; Bikos et al. 2012 ; Jin et

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

shortly after the model initiation time or during their RI stages ( Liu et al. 1997 ; Chen et al. 2011 ; Fox and Judt 2018 ). The model physics schemes include (i) the new Thompson et al. (2008) cloud microphysics scheme; (ii) the Yonsei University PBL scheme with the revised MM5 Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ); (iii) the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Dudhia shortwave scheme for shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989

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