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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, A. K. Mishra, and A. Chakraborty

equilibrium is accomplished when the production of convective available energy balances the consumption of this quantity by moist convection. Convective available energy is generated by the combined actions of surface fluxes of heat, moisture, radiative cooling, and large-scale ascent. The rest of the formulation is quite similar to that of the simplified AS scheme. f. NRL–NOGAPS Emanuel Scheme The NRL–NOGAPS Emanuel Scheme (ECS) is described in two papers, Emanuel (1991) and Emanuel and Zivkovic

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

model’s atmosphere is forced by weekly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) that are linearly interpolated into mean daily values, resulting in diurnally constant SSTs. This assumption stems from the fact that the open-ocean surface’s large heat capacity drastically diminishes the daily range of surface temperature compared to land. Diurnally constant SSTs therefore have only a small impact on the diurnal magnitude of turbulent energy fluxes, but the phases are strongly affected ( RR07a ). b. Water

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R. Cifelli, S. W. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter

. , and M. Wheeler , 1995 : Horizontal and vertical structure of observed tropospheric equatorial Rossby waves. J. Geophys. Res. , 100 , 22981 – 22997 . Kummerow , C. , W. Barnes , T. Kozu , J. Shiue , and J. Simpson , 1998 : The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sensor package. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 15 , 809 – 817 . Lin , X. , D. A. Randall , and L. D. Fowler , 2000 : Diurnal variability of the hydrologic cycle and radiative fluxes: Comparisons

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

). Lin et al. (2000) reported that diurnal phasing in the Randall GCM is very sensitive to a specified parameter that links cumulus kinetic energy to cloud mass flux, thus rendering the initial study open to question concerning model validity. The second oceanic mechanism of interest can be called the dynamic radiation–convection (DRC) interaction, based on the persistent day–night differences in radiative cooling over deep convection in contrast with the surrounding clear-air areas. This feature

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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

), surface temperature (e.g., Smith 1986 ), surface winds (e.g., Deser and Smith 1998 ), surface pressure (e.g., Petenko and Argentini 2002 ), vertical motion (e.g., Krishnamurti and Kishtawal 2000 ), cloudiness (e.g., Wylie and Woolf 2002 ), and surface and TOA radiation fluxes (e.g., Smith et al. 1986 ; Smith and Shi 1992 ; Smith and Rutan 2003 ) as some of the foremost variables. Notably, lengthy time series derived from satellite measurements of various atmospheric variables have motivated

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Tianjun Zhou, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Aiguo Dai, and Yang Pan

. A. Randall , and L. D. Fowler , 2000 : Diurnal variability of the hydrologic cycle and radiative fluxes: Comparisons between observations and a GCM. J. Climate , 13 , 4159 – 4179 . Lu , J. , 1942 : Nocturnal precipitation in Bashan mountain (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin. , 16 , 36 – 53 . Oki , T. , and K. Musiake , 1994 : Seasonal change of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over Japan and Malaysia. J. Appl. Meteor. , 33 , 1445 – 1463 . Pinker , R. T. , Y. Zhao

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Arindam Chakraborty and T. N. Krishnamurti

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle contributes to a large modulation of the time-mean energy budget of the earth–atmosphere system. Bergman and Salby (1997) , from radiative transfer calculations, showed that large errors can occur in the estimation of TOA (a list of acronyms is provided in Table 1 ) shortwave (∼20 W m −2 ) and longwave fluxes (∼5 W m −2 ) if the diurnal cycle is not taken into account. Chakraborty et al. (2007) showed that improvements in the diurnal cycle of low, middle

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