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G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo, W. J. Shuttleworth, E. Blyth, H. Österle, J. C. Adam, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, and M. Best

variations in atmospheric aerosol loading on downward shortwave radiation fluxes ( Uppala et al. 2005 ), although long-term changes in aerosol loading can significantly influence downward shortwave radiation fluxes (e.g., Wild et al. 2008 ). A correction was therefore made for the effects of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols on downward surface fluxes of shortwave radiation using twentieth-century aerosol optical depths (AODs) taken from a GCM combined with lookup tables of radiative transfer

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Pete Falloon, Richard Betts, Andrew Wiltshire, Rutger Dankers, Camilla Mathison, Doug McNeall, Paul Bates, and Mark Trigg

-cover heterogeneity explicitly. Separate surface temperatures, shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat fluxes, canopy moisture contents, snow masses, and snowmelt rates are computed for each surface type in a grid box. These are then aggregated to form a grid-square mean with weightings equal to the fractions of each type in the grid square. Air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on atmospheric model levels above the surface and soil temperatures and moisture

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Stefan Hagemann, Cui Chen, Jan O. Haerter, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, and Claudio Piani

on the accuracy of the GCM data, especially of precipitation. An accurate representation of the exchange of water among the atmosphere, the ocean, the cryosphere, and the land surface is one of the biggest challenges in global climate modeling. Simulating these fluxes is extremely difficult because they depend on processes occurring on spatial scales that are generally several orders of magnitude smaller than the typical grid size in a GCM. The formation of precipitation, for example, is

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