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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

the key elements of Earth’s energy budget ( Trenberth et al. 2009 ). While satellites provide measurements of the global distribution of reflected and emitted broadband fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), less information is available on the radiative budget at the surface and the vertical distribution of absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Key goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are to quantify the radiative energy balance profile in Earth’s atmosphere, to

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Joseph J. Michalsky and Charles N. Long

1. Introduction Two papers published in the early 1990s comparing radiation transfer codes for the infrared ( Ellingson et al. 1991 ) and for the solar ( Fouquart et al. 1991 ) irradiance concluded that many of the radiation transfer codes (parameterized to reduce run time) used in climate models did not agree with state-of-the-art line-by-line radiative transfer codes; for the most part line-by-line codes agreed with one another. However, the measurements to confirm that the radiative fluxes

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J.-L. F. Li, D. E. Waliser, G. Stephens, and Seungwon Lee

1. Introduction Representing atmospheric convection, precipitating/nonprecipitating clouds, and their multiscale organization as well as their radiation interaction in GCMs remains a pressing challenge to reduce and quantify uncertainties associated with climate change projections ( Randall et al. 2007 ; Stephens 2005 ). Atmospheric radiative structures, such as fluxes and the vertical/horizontal distributions of heating, are one of the most important factors determining global weather and

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unchanged from the original document. The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program and to relate them to DOE’s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

pressure and temperature. The line-by-line (LBL) codes that treat these details have a far greater computational cost than can be afforded by global models. Therefore, the crucial requirement for accurate radiation calculations in climate and weather prediction models must be satisfied by fast solar and thermal radiation parameterizations with a high level of accuracy that has been demonstrated through extensive comparisons with LBL codes. The calculation of a vertical profile of radiative fluxes and

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Robert G. Ellingson, Robert D. Cess, and Gerald L. Potter

. 46). The ICRCCM community considered the gamut of the then available laboratory and atmospheric observations that might be used to validate the LBL models (e.g., broadband hemispheric flux data, aircraft or surface-based spectral data, satellite spectrometers or laboratory spectra). Each was found lacking for a variety of reasons, such as poor calibration, the lack of detailed measurements of the radiatively important variables, or incomplete range of variables found in the atmosphere (laboratory

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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

.1175/JAM2241.1 . McFarlane , S. A. , J. H. Mather , and E. J. Mlawer , 2016 : ARM’s progress on improving atmospheric broadband radiative fluxes and heating rates. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: The First 20 Years , Meteor. Monogr ., No. 57, Amer. Meteor. Soc. , doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0046.1 . McNaughton , K. G. , and T. W. Spriggs , 1986 : A mixed-layer model for regional evaporation . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 34 , 243 – 262 , doi: 10.1007/BF00122381

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

methodologies that were to become building blocks for the quantification of perturbations to the shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. A combination of fundamental theoretical developments, observations, simple calculations, and arguments sowed the advances, for example, Lord Rayleigh’s (Hon. J. W. Strutt) treatise on sky light and color ( Rayleigh 1871 ) and the electromagnetic scattering of light ( Rayleigh 1881 ). Another example is Mie’s theory of electromagnetic extinction ( Mie 1908 ), which

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

ARM Program decided to collaborate on this interagency project that was being organized on the same time frame as the new facility in Barrow. SHEBA focused on climate-relevant processes in the perennial Arctic ice pack and was centered on the Canadian Coast Guard ice breaker Des Groseilliers , which was intentionally frozen into the Arctic ice pack for a full annual cycle starting in fall 1997 ( Fig. 8-2 ). The SHEBA science objectives comprised studying the relationships among radiative fluxes

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E. J. Mlawer and D. D. Turner

was demonstrated during ICRCCM. The SPECTRE dataset, however, was from a single location and from a short duration campaign, a limitation that the ARM Program, which was developed based on the SPECTRE experience and science plan, was designed to overcome. A central objective of the ARM Program was to “relate observed radiative fluxes in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the atmospheric temperature, composition (specifically including water vapor and

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