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H. Wang, R. T. Pinker, P. Minnis, and M. M. Khaiyer

radiation and thus modulate the energy balance of the earth and the atmosphere as estimated from satellites ( Ramanathan 1987 ; Ramanathan et al. 1989 ) and from numerical models ( Ramanathan et al. 1983 ; Cess et al. 1989 ). The largest uncertainties in surface shortwave (SW) flux estimates from satellites are due to inadequate information on cloud properties. There have been many attempts at both regional and global scales to estimate surface radiative fluxes from satellite-observed radiances

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David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, David R. Doelling, Fred G. Rose, Le Trang Nguyen, Thomas E. Caldwell, and Norman G. Loeb

more complex than at the TOA, as it requires a radiative transfer model and satellite-derived properties of clouds and aerosols and atmospheric state from either satellites or reanalysis. Underlying assumptions in the radiative transfer model calculations and ancillary input data error increases the uncertainty in the surface radiation budget estimates. Furthermore, it is known that the diurnal cycle of clouds and their contribution to the diurnal cycle of surface radiant flux must be taken into

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F. Tornow, C. Domenech, J. N. S. Cole, N. Madenach, and J. Fischer

its inhomogeneous three-dimensional structure ( Cahalan et al. 1994 ; Barker et al. 1996 ; Hogan et al. 2019 ). This complexity, combined with the need for computationally efficient radiative transfer calculations require climate models to make simplifying assumptions (e.g., Fu and Liou 1992 ; Clough et al. 2005 ; Bender et al. 2006 ; Pincus et al. 2003 ). The benchmark to assess the realism of a climate models’ radiative response is TOA radiative fluxes ( Ramanathan 1987 ; Bony et al. 1992

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Konstantin Loukachine and Norman G. Loeb

1. Introduction The objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to provide global radiative flux estimates at several levels from ground to the top of the atmosphere (TOA) together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties in order to improve our under-standing of how clouds and aerosols affect climate ( Wielicki et al. 1995 ). To achieve these goals, broadband satellite radiance measurements from CERES are combined with radiances from a high

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Kathryn L. Verlinden and Simon P. de Szoeke

retrievals based on cloud radar is limited to specifically nonprecipitating clouds ( Papatsoris 1994 ; Fox and Illingworth 1997 ). Our aim is to model physically accurate radiative fluxes within stratocumulus clouds observed over the southeastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Prior studies have used observations and models to study the impact of uncertainties when measuring cloud properties and to compare various retrieval methods of cloud radiative forcing and heating rate profiles ( Comstock et al. 2013

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G. Guo and J. A. Coakley Jr.

1. Introduction The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) has, as one of its goals, estimating surface radiative fluxes ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ). Estimates from CERES rely on a mix of broadband radiances, which are obtained from the CERES radiometers on the Terra and Aqua satellites; high-spatial-resolution multispectral imagery, obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); analyzed meteorological

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Satoshi Sakai, Aya Ito, Kazuhiro Umetani, Isao Iizawa, and Masanori Onishi

1. Introduction The earth’s longwave radiative flux is a crucial parameter in determining the energy balance at the surface, and is of great importance not only for the global climate but also for the local thermal environment. However, measuring longwave radiative fluxes is difficult compared with other parameters such as air temperature because it requires expensive equipment and an open sky for operation. In particular, the requirement of an open sky can obstruct the observation of longwave

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Francisco P. J. Valero, Shelly K. Pope, Robert G. Ellingson, Anthony W. Strawa, and John Vitko Jr.

1024 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 13Determination of Clear-Sky Radiative Flux Profiles, Heating Rates, and Optical Depths Using Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles as a Platform FRANCISCO P. J. VALERO AND SHELLY K. POPEAtmospheric Research Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La dolla, California ROBERT G. ELLINGSON

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Shashi K. Gupta, David P. Kratz, Anne C. Wilber, and L. Cathy Nguyen

1. Introduction The radiative fluxes at the earth's surface are major components of the surface energy budget, and are as important to the study of weather and climate phenomena as radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). These fluxes play an important role in oceanic and atmospheric general circulation patterns ( Ramanathan 1986 ; Wild et al. 1995 ). Developing a long time series of the surface radiation budget (SRB) is essential for accomplishing the objectives of a number of

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Norman G. Loeb, Seiji Kato, Konstantin Loukachine, Natividad Manalo-Smith, and David R. Doelling

1. Introduction The central objective of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is to provide accurate global cloud, aerosol, and radiation data products to facilitate research addressing the role clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the earth–atmosphere system ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ). A critical step in providing these data products is the conversion of measured CERES radiances to radiative fluxes. As described in detail in Loeb et

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