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Audrey Delpech, Claire Ménesguen, Yves Morel, Leif N. Thomas, Frédéric Marin, Sophie Cravatte, and Sylvie Le Gentil

advection terms u ⋅ ∇ u are discarded from Eq. (1) . c. Wave generation To study the instability of barotropic Rossby waves and their role in the formation of jet-like structures, we aim to create freely propagating waves using the surface momentum flux described in Eq. (2) . Because the direct response to the SMF is not in geostrophic equilibrium, an adjustment occurs by radiating many different types of waves. The objective is to ensure that the wave with the characteristics of the forcing (i

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A. M. Treguier, C. Lique, J. Deshayes, and J. M. Molines

an updated version of the Drakkar forcing sets described by Brodeau et al. (2010) . The ORCA12 simulation is forced by an interannually varying atmosphere over the period 1958–2012. The 5-day averages of model variables are stored and used to diagnose eddy fluxes. The atmospheric temperature, humidity, and winds are prescribed as well as the downward radiative fluxes. Turbulent heat fluxes and outgoing longwave radiation are calculated using the model sea surface temperature and bulk formulas

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Yang Jiao and W. K. Dewar

upwelling and high-latitude downwelling. The accompanying buoyant flux balances the ocean global heat budget. As fluctuations in the MOC are thought to participate in multidecadal to centennial climate variability, small-scale mixing is of interest to global climate. As suggested by the above, a convenient language for the quantitative discussion of mixing is that of energetics. Buoyant fluids are mixed downward and heavy fluids are mixed upward in the scenario, and this requires energy. Recent reviews

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Thomas Meunier, Claire Ménesguen, Richard Schopp, and Sylvie Le Gentil

incompressible Boussinesq equations are implemented on the f plane. In the present work, we use a flat bottom configuration with slippery conditions at the bottom, a free surface with implicit scheme ( Dukowicz and Smith 1994 ), and open radiative lateral boundary conditions. The advection scheme is a third-order upwind scheme for momentum and tracers that prevents spurious oscillations. Vertical momentum dissipation and tracer diffusivity are both modeled by a biharmonic operator with a coefficient of 1

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François Ascani, Eric Firing, Julian P. McCreary, Peter Brandt, and Richard J. Greatbatch

DEIV being generated along the western boundary by instabilities of a DWBC, Ascani et al. (2010) propose that the DEIV is generated by the instabilities of the upper-ocean equatorial current system, in particular those associated with TIWs ( Fig. 4b ). As seen in the realistic simulation analyzed by von Schuckmann et al. (2008) and in the observations and realistic simulations reviewed by Ascani et al. (2010) , a large fraction of TIW energy radiates into the deep ocean as a downward- and

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