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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

are also related to the SST field. Radiative exchanges are represented with a single-column gray-radiation model following Frierson et al. (2006) , with a single wavelength for longwave radiative fluxes, transparent to water vapor and clouds. Such a simple radiative forcing eliminates the extra dependence of the forcing on water vapor, only keeping the dependence on SST. A detailed description is presented in appendix B . The CTRL experiment is associated with a zonally homogeneous SST, fixed in

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

the relative phasing of the changes in three ocean fronts. In addition, the sum of these anomalies should be compensated by the sum of the seasonal-mean atmospheric heat transport (including contribution from the stationary eddies), net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere, and the ocean heat transport. 4. Summary and discussion We have examined the spatial and temporal covariability between the meridional heat fluxes by the atmospheric transient eddies in the Northern Hemisphere winter

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

the net surface heat flux. The reason for this is that many previous studies have identified that the LHF response to SST dominates the net flux response, with much smaller contributions from sensible heat fluxes and the radiative fluxes (e.g., Frankignoul and Kestenare 2002 ; Park et al. 2005 ). Part of this is to be expected from the Bowen ratio [ratio of sensible heat flux to LHF; see, e.g., Andreas et al. (2013) for a detailed study of the Bowen ratio], which is typically much less than 1

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Shusaku Sugimoto

. Lacis , V. Oinas , and M. I. Mishchenko , 2004 : Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D19105 , doi: 10.1029/2003JD004457 .

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

), geopotential height, horizontal wind velocity, wind stress, temperature, and humidity were taken from ERA-Interim at 1.5° resolution, while a ¾° resolution was used for SST, turbulent and radiative heat fluxes, and vertical wind. Masunaga et al. (2015) have shown that the improvement of the resolution of the prescribed SST in ERA-Interim (from 1° to ¼°) starting in January 2002 exerts substantial impacts on the representation of the marine atmospheric boundary layer, cloudiness, and precipitation. Hence

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Benoît Vannière, Arnaud Czaja, Helen Dacre, and Tim Woollings

atmosphere. Sanders and Gyakum (1980) showed that explosive cyclogenesis occurs over a wide range of SSTs but, preferentially, near the strongest gradients. Giordani and Caniaux (2001) proposed the first detailed sensitivity analysis of how the Gulf Stream and its SST gradient affect, through surface turbulent fluxes and therefore the atmospheric boundary layer, frontogenesis and cyclogenesis. A strong sensitivity of an extratropical cyclone to prescribed SST anomalies was also demonstrated over the

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

) reanalysis product ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Friction velocity ( u * ) was computed using ASCAT wind speeds, with air density of 1.2 kg m −3 and drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10 −3 . Other notations are standard, except where otherwise stated. The entrainment velocity w e at the bottom of the mixed layer is given by Eq. (2) . In the present study, biological heating was incorporated into the downward radiative flux [ q ( z )] in line with Manizza et al. (2005) : where I RED and I BLUE are both 21% of

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Youichi Tanimoto

sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from the ocean are enhanced in the cold season, because of large air–sea difference in temperature and humidity under dry, cold continental air advected by the prevailing monsoonal northerlies (e.g., Taguchi et al. 2009 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ). Despite a huge amount of heat release into the atmosphere, SST remains relatively high in winter along the KE owing to its advective effect. It has been argued that surface baroclinicity is restored through

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

between WRF and ROMS is based on bulk aerodynamic formulae ( Fairall et al. 1996 , 2003 ) that calculate surface fluxes of momentum, turbulent and radiative heat, and freshwater based on the near-surface meteorological variables provided by WRF. ROMS is driven by these surface fluxes and, in turn, feeds back to WRF via the SST and surface current. The SCOAR model has been used in a wide range of coupled dynamics studies in the Indian Ocean ( Seo et al. 2008b , 2009 , 2014 ), the Pacific Ocean ( Seo

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James F. Booth, Young-Oh Kwon, Stanley Ko, R. Justin Small, and Rym Msadek

1. Introduction Atmospheric storm tracks are very important for climate dynamics. They indicate regions of maximum transient poleward energy transport and zonal momentum transport ( Chang et al. 2002 ) and play an important role in setting the dynamical response of the midlatitudes to global warming through their radiative forcing ( Voigt and Shaw 2015 ). Storm tracks are generally calculated as the standard deviation of atmospheric data that has been filtered in the time domain to isolate

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