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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

sites (one over the western United States and the other over Tibet, China), and discusses the potential applicability of these revisions to different vegetation types. Section 4 gives the conclusions. 2. Theoretical framework a. Governing equations Over land surface, the net radiative flux ( R net ) (with downward fluxes positive) is balanced by the sensible heat (SH), latent heat (LH), and ground heat ( G ) fluxes (with fluxes away from surface positive): where SW d and LW d are downward

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

series of links in a “process chain” that connects soil moisture to precipitation: where EF is the evaporative fraction, defined as and is a function of the sensible (Qh sfc ) and latent (Qle sfc ) heat fluxes at the land surface. From Eq. (1) , the impact of soil moisture (ΔSM) on clouds and precipitation (Δ P ) is therefore dependent on the sensitivities of (i) the surface fluxes (EF sm ) to soil moisture, (ii) PBL evolution to surface fluxes, (iii) entrainment fluxes at the PBL-top (ENT) to PBL

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

–surface radiative fluxes (ISCCP–FD–SRF; Zhang et al. 2004 ) dataset at 2.5° spatial resolution and 3-hourly temporal resolution. We approximate the surface specific humidity from the TOVS precipitable water vapor estimate for the 200-hPa layer covering the surface by assuming a constant relative humidity (RH) profile and lapsing to the surface temperature and pressure. Over land, RS estimates of wind currently do not exist, which is why we use reanalysis-based inputs from the PGF. The f c is derived from

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

, moisture flux convergence, and upper-level divergence) is unchanged ( Banacos and Schultz 2005 ; DeAngelis et al. 2010 ). Numerous observational studies have attempted to determine the impact of irrigation on precipitation, with generally contradictory results. Barnston and Schickedanz (1984) observed a precipitation increase of up to 20% over the Texas Panhandle from 1930 to 1970, coincident with the rapid adoption of irrigation. Contrarily, Moore and Rojstaczer (2001) were unable to attribute

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