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J. C. B. Hoedjes, A. Chehbouni, J. Ezzahar, R. Escadafal, and H. A. R. De Bruin

, a similar effect will be seen. In this study, an effort is made to quantify differences between sensible heat fluxes, obtained from an LAS and an EC system, caused by differences between the characteristics of the respective footprints. The approach is based on the use of the radiative surface temperature, obtained from thermal infrared satellite data, as indicator of the spatial variability of soil humidity. First, a model for the estimation of sensible heat fluxes from radiative surface

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C. Spence, P. D. Blanken, J. D. Lenters, and N. Hedstrom

radiative heat flux during February 2010 and 2011 (ice absent from footprint) as compared to February 2009 (ice present in footprint). 4. Discussion a. The shoulder seasons: Spring and autumn This study highlights the importance of the “shoulder seasons” (i.e., spring and autumn) to the evaporation regime of Lake Superior. Subtle changes in the distribution of air temperature in November and March profoundly shape antecedent conditions that affect evaporation for several subsequent cold and warm months

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Laura M. Hinkelman, Karl E. Lapo, Nicoleta C. Cristea, and Jessica D. Lundquist

. Accurate simulation of accumulation requires precise precipitation estimates, including both amount and phase. Factors that affect the rate of snowmelt include incoming longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW or solar) irradiance, surface albedo, snow emissivity, snow surface temperature, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain ( Gray and Prowse 1993 ; Pomeroy et al. 2003 ). The net radiative flux generally constitutes about 80% of

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M. Jahanzeb Malik, Rogier van der Velde, Zoltan Vekerdy, and Zhongbo Su

1. Introduction The albedo of snow affects the shortwave (SW; spectral range from 0.3 to 2.5 μ m) radiative flux at the land–atmosphere interface and is, therefore, important for calculation of surface energy as well as mass (water) budgets. During snow cover periods, however, the albedo changes because of snow metamorphic processes [e.g., melt–freeze cycles, wind redistribution, sublimation, and vapor diffusion ( DeWalle and Rango 2008 )]. It is generally understood that the albedo decreases

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K. N. Musselman and J. W. Pomeroy

eight azimuthal trunk segments. c. Canopy EB model The trunk EB model was modified to estimate the temperature of a tree canopy (K) composed of needles exposed to the same radiative fluxes from the eight azimuthal directions (i.e., north, northwest, …, west, northwest) described previously. Modifications to the trunk EB model included a needle shortwave absorption parameter, sensible heat flux calculations within a resistance scheme, and definition of needle heat mass following Gouttevin et al

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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

annotation. c. Diurnal cycle of surface energy budget It is well known that the atmospheric radiative forcing processes of differential warming (i.e., in the core region) and cooling (i.e., in the outer region) within the TC environment are closely related to nighttime intensifications of convective activities in TCs over the ocean (see Tang and Zhang 2016 , and references therein; Dunion et al. 2019 ). However, none of the previous BOE studies has related the diurnal cycle of surface fluxes to TCMIs

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Simon R. Osborne and Graham P. Weedon

-covariance method suggests values around zero. 3. The JULES surface scheme The JULES surface scheme is used operationally as a component of the Met Office Unified Model but is run here as a standalone model ( Best et al. 2011 ). Specifically, the configuration of JULES used is derived from the RAL1-M version of the Unified Model ( Bush et al. 2020 ), referred to as the control run. JULES is a tiled scheme using separate skin temperatures, solar and thermal radiative fluxes, latent and sensible heat fluxes

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Dan Li, Elie Bou-Zeid, Mary Lynn Baeck, Stephen Jessup, and James A. Smith

, some analyses such as the validation of surface radiative and turbulent fluxes are based on limited measurements. More experimental datasets will be used in future work to assess the performance of different urban surface representations. In addition, some of the biases observed in this study are not isolated from the uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, which were provided by the NARR dataset. Future work involves using other forcing datasets in addition to NARR to help identify

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Alan K. Betts

, briefly reaching a quasi equilibrium in the afternoon before collapsing at sunset. During the daytime, the BL growth is generally much larger than the mean subsidence, which is closely related in the mean to the radiative cooling as over the oceans ( Betts and Ridgway 1988 , 1989 ). Typically over land, a shallow cumulus layer forms at the top of the mixed layer, so that during most of the daytime hours, mixed layer depth and cloud-base height are tightly coupled. This convective flux out of the

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B. A. Forman and S. A. Margulis

predicting their occurrence and/or properties, and hence have a greater potential for capturing cloud-related processes operating on downwelling radiative fluxes. However, each radiation flux product is derived using different methods and employs different remotely sensed measurements, and as a result, each product has its own spatiotemporal characteristics and uncertainties. Making the most of these different products requires merging them in a way that extracts the most information while appropriately

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