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David Medvigy, Robert L. Walko, Martin J. Otte, and Roni Avissar

the TOA fluxes and radiative transfer models. For the purposes of GCM parameter adjustment, the choice of whether to use ERBE, ERBS, or CERES products may not be very significant, as recent work by Bender (2008) reported little difference between models constrained by ERBE or CERES (ERBS was not discussed). In this study, we have used the CERES data to optimize and evaluate OLAM because of its more comprehensive temporal coverage. To evaluate OLAM’s precipitation fields, we used monthly averages

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Jeffrey Frame and Paul Markowski

1. Introduction Observations have established that the extinction of the direct solar beam by the anvil clouds of supercell thunderstorms can cause significant reductions in the net radiative flux at the surface, creating low-level air temperature deficits of up to 4 K beneath the anvils of the storms ( Markowski et al. 1998 ). Dowell and Bluestein (1997) also observed a gradual 5-K temperature decrease between full sun and the onset of light precipitation in instrumented tower measurements

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Steven M. Cavallo, Jimy Dudhia, and Chris Snyder

) and H 2 O, while O 3 , although reaching a maximum ~5 hPa ( Fig. 2b ), is a relatively weak absorber in the longwave bands (e.g., Manabe and Strickler 1964 ). Since CO 2 is well mixed, and since it is evident from Fig. 2c that H 2 O is well mixed in the stratosphere, we hypothesize that assuming a more realistic thermal structure between the model top and TOA can improve the accuracy of radiative flux calculations. Fig . 2. The standard MLW (blue), MLS (red), SAW (cyan), TROP (green), and mean

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Xiaoqing Wu, Xin-Zhong Liang, and Sunwook Park

independent datasets such as longwave and shortwave radiative flux, cloud radiative forcing, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and airborne radar reflectivity. The general agreement between modeled and satellite-retrieved radiative fluxes gives confidence in the use of CRM-generated cloud and radiative properties to evaluate the cloud and radiation parameterization schemes of GCMs ( Wu and Moncrieff 2001 ). The TOGA COARE observations and successful long-term CRM simulations help establish the

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J-J. Morcrette, H. W. Barker, J. N. S. Cole, M. J. Iacono, and R. Pincus

et al. 2001 ). In parallel, following comparisons with some of the surface observations discussed above ( Morcrette 2002a , b ), revisions were made to the shortwave radiation scheme (extended from 2 to 4 spectral intervals in June 2000 and then to 6 spectral intervals in April 2002). Despite the improvements brought to the representation of the clear-sky radiative fluxes by these revised/new schemes, the handling of cloudiness kept following an approach that was originally introduced 20 yr

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José A. Ruiz-Arias, Clara Arbizu-Barrena, Francisco J. Santos-Alamillos, Joaquín Tovar-Pescador, and David Pozo-Vázquez

. Cambridge University Press , 496 pp. Wild , M. , 2005 : Solar radiation budgets in atmospheric model intercomparisons from a surface perspective . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L07704 , doi: 10.1029/2005GL022421 . Wild , M. , A. Ohmura , H. Gilgen , and E. Roeckner , 1995 : Validation of general circulation model radiative fluxes using surface observations . J. Climate , 8 , 1309 – 1324 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1309:VOGCMR>2.0.CO;2 . Wild , M. , D. Folini , C

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Jui-Lin F. Li, Martin Köhler, John D. Farrara, and C. R. Mechoso

surface energy budget, most atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) predict or diagnose PBL stratocumulus cloud amounts and their radiative impacts. However, most AGCMs substantially underestimate PBL cloud amounts ( Wyngaard and Moeng 1990 ), resulting in an overestimate of surface solar radiative fluxes. When an AGCM with such difficulties is coupled to an oceanic model, there are typically large errors in the simulated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the regions along the coasts of

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I. R. van der Velde, G. J. Steeneveld, B. G. J. Wichers Schreur, and A. A. M. Holtslag

: Comparison of surface radiative flux parameterizations. Part I: Longwave radiation. Atmos. Res. , 58 , 1 – 18 . Noh , Y. , W. G. Cheon , and S. Y. Hong , 2003 : Improvement of the k-profile model for the planetary boundary layer based on large eddy simulation data. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 107 , 401 – 427

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Jay S. Hobgood and John N. Rayner

)ABSTRACT In recent years a number of different methods have been proposed for the inclusion of the effects of cumuliin numerical models of tropical cyclones. In this paper several of the Kuo-type parameterizations have beentested by simulating the development of tropical cyclones from identical sets of initial conditions. The use ofthe same model and initial conditions made it possible to determine the effects of the various parameterizations.In the simulations without radiative fluxes, significant

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Micheal Hantel and Wolfgang Peyinghaus

exponentialattenuation law to the incident flux which involves nointegration. The longwave flux, comprising the wavelength interval 3-500 t~m, is calculated by integratinga simplified form of the radiative transfer equation.For both spectral regions, the standard pressure interval0-1013 mb was divided into 20 equal layers. The inputparameters were specified and the output fluxes wereobtained at the corresponding 21 pressure levels in thevertical. The model contains a simple cloud parameterization.Clouds were

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