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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

near the bottom and the drag is better predicted by the buoyancy adjusted linear theory F adj [Eq. (15) ], and the supercritical regime J ≥ J c , in which the lowest parcels of water are trapped in the valleys and the drag is limited by the radiative capacity of the fluid, F sat = ρ 0 U 3 N −1 [Eq. (5) ]. Fig . 10. Time-averaged vertical momentum flux F ¯ SUN [Eq. (17) ] normalized by (top) F sat = ρ 0 U 3 N −1 [Eq. (5) ], (middle) F lin [Eq. (3) ], and (bottom) F adj [Eq

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Gunnar Voet, Matthew H. Alford, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Jonathan D. Nash

during spring tide. This result is similar to the energetics of Knight Inlet Sill where about two-thirds of the internal waves generated from the barotropic tide radiate away while one-third is lost to near-sill processes ( Klymak and Gregg 2004 ). A fraction of the energy flux into the lee waves may also feed back into the mean flow as explored in a recent study by Kunze and Lien (2019) . Their theory hinges on the conservation of wave action in the presence of sheared background flow and may well

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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

underlying 1.1–3.0-day variability identified in the PIES measurements, wind stress reanalysis data across the Pacific from the equator to 39°N were downloaded spanning 2015 through the end of 2017 ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ; NCEP 2018 ). NCEP reanalysis daily averages of the zonal and meridional components of the momentum flux are available at 1.9° spatial resolution. From these data, the daily wind stress curl is calculated. On average, the curl in the tropical North Pacific is positive both during El Niño

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

bottom form-drag ph x , vertical momentum-flux uw and vertical component of the Eliassen–Palm flux uw − fυb / N 2 (18) 〈 w p 〉 = U 〈 p h x 〉 = − U ⁡ ( 〈 u w 〉 − f N 2 〈 υ b 〉 ) ( Fig. 7 ). Losses from radiating lee waves will be partitioned between either (i) exchange with the mean flow through Eliassen–Palm flux ( Eliassen and Palm 1961 ) forcing or (ii) dissipation ∫ ε dz . Divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux is a forcing term in momentum conservation for a vertically sheared balanced flow

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Jody M. Klymak

1. Introduction Slowly varying stratified flow over topography occurs throughout the ocean either due to mean flows or eddies. Energy can be lost from the mean flow by bottom friction (usually small), by the creation of internal waves that radiate and eventually break ( Nikurashin and Ferrari 2010 ), or by other nonlinear processes. By creating internal waves that have to break in the water column, mean flow over rough topography is one of the possible pathways by which the interior of the

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Bowen Zhao, Emma Chieusse-Gérard, and Glenn Flierl

topography gives instability (see the appendix ). This further confirms that our stability result applies to smooth velocity profiles and smooth topography. Note that rotating shallow water models admit unstable modes for monotonic PV profiles owing to the radiation of inertia–gravity waves (i.e., radiative instability; Ford et al. 2000 ; Lahaye and Zeitlin 2016 ), which is however eliminated by our quasigeostrophy approximation. Due to small values of the Rossby number for oceanic eddies, we expect

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