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Lisa Hannak, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Anke Kniffka, and Gregor Pante

cooler but also drier air inland. More cooling is caused by outgoing longwave radiation, either from the surface before cloud formation or from cloud top afterward. If radiative cooling is anomalously strong, the surface layer can become decoupled from the lower troposphere, impeding cloud formation ( Schrage et al. 2007 ). Depending on vertical stability, which in turn depends on differential temperature advection and radiative cooling, shear-generated turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture can

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Kerry H. Cook and Edward K. Vizy

resolution and SSTAs [contour interval (CI): 0.25 K] as prescribed for the 21C simulation. The model domain, resolution, and physical parameterizations are chosen based on testing and include the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer ( Hong et al. 2006 ), Monin–Obukhov surface layer, new Kain–Fritsch cumulus convection ( Kain 2004 ), Purdue–Lin microphysics ( Chen and Sun 2002 ), Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), the Dudhia shortwave radiation ( Dudhia

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John G. Dwyer, Michela Biasutti, and Adam H. Sobel

strength and extent of the Hadley cell affecting the amplitude of precipitation and SST via changes in the surface wind speed on turbulent surface fluxes; an increase in low-level water vapor vertically advected by the Hadley cell leading to an increase in the amplitude of precipitation; changes in the timing and strength of the annual cycle of surface heat fluxes affecting the annual cycle of surface temperature; increased vertical stability later in the year due to enhanced warming aloft delaying the

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

:// ). Without nearby stations, it is often impossible to distinguish erroneous data from real events with centennial return periods. Since the advent of geostationary satellites around the 1980s and subsequently the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997, daily satellite-based rainfall estimations (SRFEs) have opened new avenues for quality checks of gauge data. However, these SRFEs are based on proxies related to radiative and emissive properties of cloud hydrometeors at

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