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Robert Wood

, turbulence, surface fluxes, latent heat release, and entrainment. In many cases, particularly over the oceans, precipitation also exerts important controls on the STBL. This section describes our state of knowledge of the key controlling processes separately and section 6 focuses on the critical interplay between these processes. a. Radiative driving of stratocumulus Longwave radiative cooling at the cloud top is the primary cause of convection in stratocumulus ( Lilly 1968 ; Nicholls 1984 , 1989

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

from radiative heating profiles is considered in the calculation of entrainment at the top of the cloudy boundary layer in the turbulence schemes by Lock et al. (2000) and Bretherton and Park (2009) , which improves the radiation–turbulence coupling from the perspective of time stepping. Some modern parameterizations are designed to handle multiple atmospheric processes in a unified way. Examples include the eddy diffusivity–mass flux (EDMF) scheme of Siebesma et al. (2007) and the Cloud

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

conservation of total energy following the 3D flow); is the velocity vector, ω is the pressure vertical velocity, and α is the specific volume. In (3) , the first two terms on the right-hand side represent baroclinic and barotropic conversion, respectively. The third term on the right-hand side also represents an energy transfer between the mean flow and the eddies, but averages out to zero in the time mean. Following Orlanski and Sheldon (1993) , the energy flux can be written as follows: where

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T. N. Krishnamurti

symmetric monsoon in a generalcirculation model. The model included oceans to thesouth, and land areas with mountains to the north.Other features were air-sea interaction, convective adjustment, detailed radiative processes and large scalecondensation. With the inclusion of mountains and amean July solar insolation input the model simulateda realistic monsoon including such features as: themonsoon trough, monsoon rainfall, warm troposphere,tropical easterly jet, strong Hadley circulation andlower

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

Horizontal convective rolls are a common form of boundary layer convection manifested as counterrotating vortices about the horizontally oriented axis. Clouds often form atop the updraft branches of rolls (e.g., Kuettner 1959 , 1971 ; LeMone and Pennell 1976 ; Christian and Wakimoto 1989 ). Rolls and cloud streets can extend hundreds of kilometers and last several hours. The conditions necessary for roll development and maintenance are surface-layer heat flux, some minimal low-level wind shear, and

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

. A model that allowedcondensation only upon grid-scale saturation wouldfail to reproduce this heat source. (iii) Large vertical fluxes of heat, moisture, andother quantities by cumulus convection occur on scalesunresolvable by hydrostatic model grids. A model thatdid not implicitly include such subgrid-scale sourceterms could not accurately predict grid-scale evolutionwhen convection was active. The sum of net condensation heating (or moistening) in the column [(ii) above] and convective

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David M. Schultz and Philip N. Schumacher

that “slantwise convection” is not appropriate terminology to describe the circulations that release CSI. Taking the fluid dynamicists’ definition of convection to be a circulation that results in positive heat flux, Thorpe and Rotunno (1989) note that the heat flux with CSI circulations can be negative in certain cases (e.g., Miller 1984 ), and, hence, these circulations formally should not be considered “convection.” These thoughts on terminology, however, are not shared by all in the

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