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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

16 cm) soil model ( Grell et al. 1995 ), where the vertical heat transfer is controlled by the soil thermal inertia of each land use category. This soil scheme calculates temperature tendencies by taking the residual of the surface energy budget (including sensible, latent, and radiative heat fluxes) and keeps the substrate at a constant temperature. Soil moisture was allowed to vary by setting the IMOIAV parameter to 1 if precipitation events occurred during the running time. The model was then

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Mikhail Varentsov, Natalia Shartova, Mikhail Grischenko, and Pavel Konstantinov

al. 2011 ), which was conducted by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMFW) and is freely available from the ECMWF data portal ( https://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/interim-full-daily/levtype=sfc/ ). It is still not perfect for high-latitude regions but provides the best verification results for wind speed, near-surface temperature, and radiative fluxes in comparison to six other global reanalysis products, as is shown in a detailed evaluation study ( Lindsay et al. 2014

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K. Kvale, K. Zickfeld, T. Bruckner, K. J. Meissner, K. Tanaka, and A. J. Weaver

the respective impulse response functions, which are the measured temporal response of a state variable calculated from the perturbation of the control run of a more complex model ( Hooss et al. 2001 ; Joos et al. 1996 ). Parameterizations of atmospheric chemistry involve direct radiative forcing agents (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , 29 species of halocarbons, tropospheric and stratospheric O 3 , and stratospheric water vapor) and indirect radiative forcing agents (OH, NO x , CO, and VOC) ( Joos et

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Calum G. Turvey and Megan K. Mclaurin

that characterizes it as a limiting factor to plant growth, soil moisture appears to become the dominant climate variable affecting NDVI values ( Farrar et al. 1994 ; Nicholson and Farrar 1994 ; Udelhoven et al. 2009 ; Yang et al. 1998 ). Collectively, the work on relationships between NDVI, precipitation, and temperature is characterized by highly variable relationships including complex radiative interactions between the atmosphere, sensor view angle, and solar zenith angle, which all affect

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Mary McRae, Ross A. Lee, Scott Steinschneider, and Frank Galgano

time period captures next-generation aircraft that would currently be in the research and development phase. Representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are four greenhouse gas concentration trajectories adopted by the IPCC for its AR5 in 2014 ( Moss et al. 2008 ). The four RCPs—RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5—are named after a possible range of radiative forcing values in the year 2100 relative to preindustrial values (+2.6, +4.5, +6.0, and +8.5 W m −2 , respectively) ( Weyant et al. 2009

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Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Hanna Niemi-Hugaerts, Krista Keisu, and Juha A. Karhu

B1 scenario, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other GHGs increase only slowly up to the 2040s and then start to reduce in time, resulting in a not larger than 1.5-fold concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere and a threefold total radiative forcing in 2100 compared to those in 2000 ( Fig. 1 ). Hence, B1 may be used as a surrogate for mitigation scenarios. In the A2 scenario, GHG emissions increase continuously, producing as large as 2.3-fold CO 2 concentrations and a sixfold radiative

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Emily D. Esplin, Jennifer R. Marlon, Anthony Leiserowitz, and Peter D. Howe

; Hajat et al. 2010 ; Klinenberg 2015 ). Some studies also show that more people suffer heat-related health symptoms and death during the first heat wave of the warm season even if it is less severe than subsequent heat events ( Anderson and Bell 2009 , 2011 ; Liss et al. 2017 ). Highly developed areas with little vegetation create urban heat islands that prevent people’s ability to cool down sufficiently at night as the heat continues to radiate from buildings and impervious surfaces ( Clarke 1972

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