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Jiaying Zhang, Liao-Fan Lin, and Rafael L. Bras

extending from the surface to 50 hPa. The physics option follows the one outlined in Lin et al. (2015) , including the WRF single-moment 3-class microphysics scheme ( Hong et al. 2004 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), the Dudhia shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989 ), the unified Noah land surface model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), the revised MM5 Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme, the Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer ( Hong et al. 2006

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Kamil Mroz, Mario Montopoli, Alessandro Battaglia, Giulia Panegrossi, Pierre Kirstetter, and Luca Baldini

1. Introduction The Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (GEWEX) initiative of the World Climate Research Program continues to struggle with a lack of accurate precipitation estimates at high latitudes where precipitation occurs mainly as snowfall ( Joe et al. 2010 ; Stephens et al. 2018 ; Liu 2020 ). The IPCC (2013) reported an additional surplus of 4 W m −2 of radiative flux into the surface compared to the previous energy budget, which has been compensated by an increase of the

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