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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

), thus the conductance and LAI are coupled in GEMTM. More details on GEMTM and its application and validation at the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) sites can be found in Chen and Coughenor ( Chen and Coughenor, 1994 ). Briefly, we note that Chen and Coughenor ( Chen and Coughenor, 1994 ) showed that GEMTM was able to simulate changes in net CO 2 flux, canopy resistance, plant water potential, and canopy and soil-surface temperature

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Christopher Small

from the impact of low-density agricultural land use. On a global basis, urban land use may be areally insignificant, but at local and regional scales the large material and energy fluxes associated with urban areas have a disproportionate impact on microclimate and ecosystem function (e.g., Berry, 1990 ; Landsberg, 1981 ). Regional analyses have demonstrated that urban NO x emissions are volumetrically significant enough to have an adverse impact on regional agricultural productivity

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