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S. W. Hoch, P. Calanca, R. Philipona, and A. Ohmura

1. Introduction The divergence of the longwave radiative fluxes is an important component of the thermodynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer ( Kondratyev 1969 ; Garratt and Brost 1981 ). The cooling associated with the divergence of longwave radiation is understood to be essential for the establishment and maintenance of persistent surface inversion layers close to the surface during the polar night ( Cerni and Parish 1984 ). Over large ice sheets, the strong radiative cooling has been

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Yingtao Ma, Rachel T. Pinker, Margaret M. Wonsick, Chuan Li, and Laura M. Hinkelman

( Gray and Prowse 1992 ; Pomeroy et al. 2003 ). The net radiation generally makes up about 80% of the energy balance ( Male and Granger 1981 ; Marks and Dozier 1992 ; Cline 1997 ). Therefore, the greatest potential sources of error in simulating snowmelt rates and timing are errors in radiation inputs. Complex terrain poses a great challenge for obtaining needed information on radiative fluxes from satellites because of elevation issues, spatially variable cloud cover, rapidly changing surface

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Banglin Zhang, Rachel T. Pinker, and Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.

1. Introduction a. At issue To advance the understanding of the water cycle and land–atmosphere interactions on the global scale, information on radiative fluxes is needed at similar scales and, in principle, can be obtained from satellite observations. Only recently have global-scale satellite observations at climatic time scales become available. Issues related to paucity of data have been addressed in the past, but each climatic parameter poses a unique challenge for obtaining homogeneous

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Carlos Domenech, Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, David P. Donovan, and Tobias Wehr

region of the same clouds, which cannot be penetrated by the lidar, will be observed using the radar. To gain cross-track information needed for the retrieval of three-dimensional structures of clouds and aerosols, the active instruments will be supported by a 150-km swath multispectral imager. To link the computed three-dimensional cloud and aerosol structures to the radiative fluxes, the corresponding shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) outgoing radiation will be measured by using the broadband

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C. M. Naud, I. Rangwala, M. Xu, and J. R. Miller

(2006) reported changes in cloud amount over the Tibetan Plateau [also identified by Zhang et al. (2008) and Yang et al. (2012 )] and suggested that these changes (i.e., daytime decrease, nighttime increase) played a role in the temperature increase in the region, through their radiative impact. Ye et al. (2009) , for example, found a strong correlation between surface downward shortwave fluxes and the diurnal temperature range. Yang et al. (2012) demonstrated that the increase in deep

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Joseph Sedlar, Laura D. Riihimaki, Kathleen Lantz, and David D. Turner

1. Introduction Clouds are a crucial aspect of the climate system via their direct connection to the hydrological cycle and their influence on Earth’s energy balance. Because clouds significantly interact with solar (shortwave) and infrared (longwave) fluxes, their influence on the surface and top-of-atmosphere radiation budgets drive weather and climate across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales (e.g., Peixoto and Oort 1992 ; Trenberth et al. 2009 ; Ahrens 2012 ). Cloud–radiative

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Ehrhard Raschke, Stefan Kinne, William B. Rossow, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr, and Martin Wild

et al. 2005 ) on the geostationary Meteosat platforms since 1998. The required accuracy for atmospheric radiative fluxes depends on the spatial and temporal scales considered as well as the applications ( Smith et al. 1986 , 2006 ). Accuracy requirements range from 15 W m −2 for weather scales to less than 1 W m −2 for climate scales ( Ohring et al. 2005 ). Direct satellite determinations of the broadband radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) face uncertainties related to

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Helen E. Brindley and Jacqueline E. Russell

the two aerosol models introduced in section 2 in terms of their ability to match the angular distribution of the observed GERB radiances. We also assess the performance of the different approaches highlighted in section 3 by analyzing the variability of derived flux fields. In section 5 , we use the best-performing model and approach identified in section 4 to quantify the likely impact of neglecting the effect of dust aerosol on the GERB SW fluxes and derived dust radiative efficiency

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Bruce A. Wielicki and Richard N. Green

VOLUME28 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY NOVEMBER 1989Cloud Identification for ERBE Radiative Flux Retrieval BRUCE A. WIELICKI AND RICHARD N. GREENAtmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia(Manuscript received 27 September 1988, in final form 15 May 1989) ABSTRACT Derivation of top of atmosphere radiative fluxes requires the use of measured satellite

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F. Miskolczi, T. O. Aro, M. Iziomon, and R. T. Pinker

Introduction Surface radiative fluxes play an important role in climate processes on all scales. The key elements involved in the exchange of energy between the surface and the atmosphere are the upwelling and downwelling shortwave (SW: 0.2–4.0 μ m) and longwave (LW: 4.0–50.0 μ m) fluxes. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR: 0.4–0.7 μ m) is known to play a key role in controlling CO 2 exchange (Bolin 1977; Daughtry et al. 1992 ), modeling of biological heating in oceans

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