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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

wavelengths (see appendix B ) and to vertical variations in gravity wave activity [cf. Figs. 3a and 3b of Hoffmann and Alexander (2009) ]; (ii) radiative transfer (RT) is simpler. Kernel functions in the 4.3 μ m band, by contrast, are broader vertically and RT is complicated by breakdown of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE; DeSouza-Machado et al. 2007 ; Hoffmann and Alexander 2009 ; Chen et al. 2013 ). Corresponding 4.3 μ m gravity wave products are described in section 2c and are compared to

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM; Han et al. 2010 ), such as the upwelling radiation propagation vector and geomagnetic field vectors ( Maurer et al. 2015 ). Within NAVGEM, systematic radiance biases are identified and removed using variational bias correction (varBC; Dee and Uppala 2009 ), with the LAS and UAS channels treated separately, replacing earlier SSMIS bias-correction procedures described in section 4a of Hoppel et al. (2013) . Bias-corrected UAS radiances are assimilated here

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

small (acoustic) time step, respectively. Thereby meteorologically significant low-frequency modes are integrated with the large RK3 time step, whereas high-frequency acoustic modes and gravity waves are integrated over smaller time steps to maintain numeric stability. In this study, a large time step of 15 s is used. Physical parameterizations used in this study contain the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model longwave scheme ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), the Goddard shortwave scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1994

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

parameterization in thermal infrared radiative transfer . J. Atmos. Sci. , 54 , 2799 – 2812 ,<2799:MSPITI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2799:MSPITI>2.0.CO;2 Garfinkel , C. I. , and L. D. Oman , 2018 : Effect of gravity waves from small islands in the Southern Ocean on the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 123 , 1552 – 1561 , . 10.1002/2017JD027576 Gregory , K. D. , and B

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