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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

Fritsch 1990 , 1993 ; Kain 2004 ), the Noah land surface model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for short- and longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), and Lin et al.'s microphysics ( Lin et al. 1983 ; Rutledge and Hobbs 1984 ; Tao et al. 1989 ; Chen and Sun 2002 ). No data assimilation or nudging was used. Although the winds associated with the sting jet occur specifically at the surface, wind speeds in this article are plotted at 925 hPa because frontal structures

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

University planetary boundary layer scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ), Noah land surface model, and the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) similarity surface-layer scheme, based on Monin–Obukhov theory ( Monin and Obukhov 1954 ). Longwave and shortwave radiation were parameterized using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation models (RRTMG) scheme ( Iacono et al. 2008 ), and the Kain–Fritsch scheme ( Kain and Fritsch

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Geraint Vaughan, Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, and Christopher Dearden

radar network—Past, present and future . Weather , 66 , 291 – 297 , doi: 10.1002/wea.861 . 10.1002/wea.861 Mlawer , E. J. , S. J. Taubman , P. D. Brown , M. J. Iacono , and S. A. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmosphere: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16 663 – 16 682 , doi: 10.1029/97JD00237 . 10.1029/97JD00237 Morrison , H. , J. A. Curry , and V. I. Khvorostyanov , 2005 : A new double

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

850 hPa until 1000 UTC and therefore likely to be influenced by boundary layer mixing. In contrast, after 1000 UTC the RH ice of airstream S2 decreases rapidly associated with descent, arriving with an average of 30%. During these 7 h, θ e decreases by less than 1 K, which is slow enough to be explained by radiative cooling. It implies that the effects of mixing do not alter θ e . The next section will investigate diabatic processes in more detail. The ground-relative horizontal wind speed of

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

riming of both cloud droplets and rain onto snow and pristine ice. The shape of pristine ice crystals is accounted for during riming in a similar way to that of aggregation [i.e., in terms of the cross-sectional area (which is diagnosed from the crystal shape moment) and fall speed]. Diagnosis of the cross-sectional area benefits the calculation of collection kernels and radiative transfer. Collection efficiencies between pristine ice crystals (columnar and planar) and cloud droplets are referred to

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