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J. Alexander Brearley, Katy L. Sheen, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, David A. Smeed, and Stephanie Waterman

downstream of Drake Passage ( Gille 1994 ; Morrow et al. 1994 ). The strength of this Southern Ocean eddy field is believed to be sensitive to climatic changes in forcing on a range of time scales ( Thompson and Solomon 2002 ; Meredith and Hogg 2006 ; Meredith et al. 2012 ). While the upscale transfer of eddy energy from high- to low-baroclinic modes (and ultimately to the barotropic mode) is relatively well quantified ( Scott and Wang 2005 ), the processes by which eddy energy is dissipated are

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Michael Bates, Ross Tulloch, John Marshall, and Raffaele Ferrari

– 683 , doi: 10.1357/002224007783649484 . Smith , K. S. , and J. C. Marshall , 2009 : Evidence for enhanced eddy mixing at middepth in the Southern Ocean . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 39 , 50 – 69 , doi: 10.1175/2008JPO3880.1 . Stewart , R. , and R. E. Thomson , 1977 : Re-examination of vorticity transfer theory . Proc. Roy. Soc. , 354 , 1 – 8 , doi: 10.1098/rspa.1977.0053 . Stone , P. H. , 1972 : A simplified radiative-dynamical model for the static stability of rotating atmospheres

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Sophia T. Merrifield, Louis St. Laurent, Breck Owens, Andreas M. Thurnherr, and John M. Toole

associated with density fronts flow over rough topography, generating internal lee waves that radiate energy and provide power for turbulence in the stratified ocean interior (e.g., Nikurashin and Ferrari 2010 ). Water mass variability and strong mesoscale activity also precondition the water column for double-diffusive instability (e.g., Joyce et al. 1978 ). Because of the remoteness and harsh conditions, few direct measurements of mixing have been made in the Southern Ocean. A growing body of work

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Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Kurt L. Polzin, Raffaele Ferrari, Jan D. Zika, and Alexander Forryan

Deep Water (CDW) along poleward-shoaling isoneutrals, and isoneutral-following, northward downwelling of denser Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) and of lighter Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Water mass transformations [defined here as transfers of water between adjacent potential temperature–salinity ( θ – S ) classes] are commonly assumed to be confined to the surface mixed layer. This assumption, however, appears at odds with the observation of widespread

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