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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

, M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD009944 . Janjić , Z. I. , 1994 : The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulence closure schemes . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 927 – 945 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122<0927:TSMECM>2.0.CO;2 . Johnson

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

.-M. , and D. A. Randall , 1995 : Impact of interactive radiative transfer on the macroscopic behavior of cumulus ensembles. Part II: Mechanisms for cloud-radiation interaction . J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 800 – 817 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<0800:IOIRTO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<0800:IOIRTO>2.0.CO;2 Xu , W. , and S. A. Rutledge , 2014 : Convective characteristics of the Madden–Julian oscillation over the central Indian Ocean observed by shipborne radar during

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

Beljaars 2005 ). This creates diurnally varying surface temperature over both ocean and land. The GCM version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) longwave radiation scheme ( Iacono et al. 2008 ) and the updated Goddard shortwave scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1994 ; T. Matsui et al. 2007, meeting presentation; Shi et al. 2010 ) are used to parameterize radiative processes. Subgrid-scale vertical turbulent eddy mixing is parameterized using the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme ( Hong et al. 2006

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

. Mishchenko , 2004 : Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D19105 , doi: 10.1029/2003JD004457 .

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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

SST on a diurnal basis and increases the heat transfer to the atmosphere as latent heat ( Fig. 4 ). The pronounced upper-ocean warming anomaly (>0.3°C) below the TBL, reaching greater than 20-m depth in CF1 and evidently less so in CF6 and CF24, is due to the penetration of shortwave radiation flux through the TBL, reinforcing the stable upper-ocean stratification (e.g., Shinoda and Hendon 1998 ). The thin and warm daytime TBL is deepened at night due to surface radiative cooling and enhanced

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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

to observed intraseasonal tropical sea surface temperature anomalies . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L14107 , doi: 10.1029/2004GL020474 . Mobley , C. D. , 1994 : Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters. Academic Press, 592 pp . Moum , J. , and Coauthors , 2013 : Air–sea interactions from westerly wind bursts during the November 2011 MJO in the Indian Ocean. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 1185–1199 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00225.1 . Mujumdar , M. , K. Salunke , S. A

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