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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

Ramaswamy (1999) and Schwarzkopf and Ramaswamy (1999) , respectively, modified as in Anderson et al. (2004) . Total and spectral solar irradiances are from the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) ( Kopp et al. 2005 ), as recommended for Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ( http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/met/ag/strat/forschung/SOLARIS/Input_data/CMIP5_solar_irradiance.html ). 1) Subgrid variability and overlap All-sky radiative transfer calculations account for the effect of clouds using the

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

subgrid assumptions also impact the representation of other cloud processes in GCMs, such as radiative and microphysical impacts of vertical cloud overlap assumptions, and horizontal cloud condensate variability (e.g., Pincus and Klein 2000 ; Barker and Räisänen 2004 , 2005 ; Pincus et al. 2006 ). 2. Background For clarity, we distinguish between a local activation parameterization and a gridbox activation parameterization. We define a local parameterization as one that is applicable at cloud

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

portion of this paper employ historical radiative forcing from the years 1860–2000. Model comparisons use the ensemble mean and time mean from a five-member ensemble of historical experiments in CM2.1 and CM3 over the years 1981–2000. Each ensemble member was initialized from a different point during the 1860 radiatively forced spinups for the two respective models, with CM2.1 ensemble members initialized 40 years apart and CM3 ensemble members initialized 50 years apart. For our purposes, the

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