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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

evident in maps of PM brightness temperatures, providing unambiguous retrievals of precipitation is often difficult. This is primarily because of the variability of the surface background and/or the nonunique observed spectral signatures to hydrometeor profiles and surface rainfall relationships. A greater insight into the radiometric signature may be obtained through inverse radiative transfer modeling, although such techniques are ultimately limited by the model itself and the computational

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

in the surface model . J. Japan Soc. Hydrol. Water Res. , 6 , 344 – 349 , doi: 10.3178/jjshwr.6.4_344 . Kummerow, C. , 1993 : On the accuracy of the Eddington approximation for radiative transfer in the microwave frequencies . J. Geophys. Res. , 98 , 2757 – 2765 , doi: 10.1029/92JD02472 . Lang, S. E. , Tao W.-K. , Cifelli R. , Olson W. , Halverson J. , Rutledge S. , and Simpson J. , 2007 : Improving simulations of convective systems from TRMM LBA: Easterly and westerly

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

that alters the radiative effects of such clouds (e.g., Shupe et al. 2006 , 2013 ). Airborne radar observations have also indicated orographically induced mountain snowfall originating from fairly shallow cloud structures above ground level ( Pokharel et al. 2014 ; Geerts et al. 2015 ). Shallow snowfall occurs pervasively around the world because of a handful of possible mechanisms, but a truly global observational accounting of shallow snowfall has not been undertaken because of the dearth of

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

. 2009 ). MW radiances are used to estimate rain rates through a radiative transfer model. To compensate for the sparse MW observations, rain fields are advected in space and time through a simple motion model called moving vector. Each new MW observation is assimilated using Kalman filtering. IR geostationary images are used for the computation of motion vectors. The near-real-time version of the product, which does not integrate gauges, is used. CMORPH ( Joyce et al. 2004 ) uses MW-based rainfall

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