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Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, Donald A. Burrows, and Robert Keith

their complex radiative, thermodynamic, and aerodynamic characteristics ( Oke 1988 ; Arya 2001 ). Additionally, the quasi-random behavior of turbulent eddies that arise from mechanical and thermal interactions of the flow with buildings are difficult to predict and also very sensitive to slight perturbations in the inflow. Because of these inherent complexities and for the sake of simply predicting general hazard area definitions, the common approach has been to use models that provide a solution

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, J. C. Klewicki, S. U. Pol, and M. J. Brown

downdraft is occurring elsewhere through conservation of mass. Regions with strong downdrafts are observed in and near the intersections, which suggests that the local maximum in M may be evidence of a wall jet radiating outward from the impinging of a downdraft of higher-momentum fluid on the street surface near the intersection. Similar to what was found in the vertical velocities for southerly flow, the vertical velocities in the canyon interior have small positive mean values for southwesterly

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Yansen Wang, Cheryl L. Klipp, Dennis M. Garvey, David A. Ligon, Chatt C. Williamson, Sam S. Chang, Rob K. Newsom, and Ronald Calhoun

strong shear regions near building surfaces. The large percentage of asphalt, concrete, and other man-made materials creates heterogeneous nonpermeable surfaces with different heat capacities and radiative properties. Thermal property and surface moisture contrasts between the urban area and the surrounding countryside can produce substantial temperature differences, resulting in an urban heat island effect. This effect was noted several decades ago ( Bornstein 1968 ; Oke 1976 ) and continues to be

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