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Feimin Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

season. In this study, the WRF Model includes 47 vertical levels, with 10 vertical levels below 500 m and the lowest level at about 15 m above ground level (AGL). The physical parameterization schemes include the Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme ( Kain 2004 ; for the “d01 and d02” domains only, while the cumulus scheme is deactivated in the “d03 and d04” domains); the WSM6 microphysics scheme ( Hong and Lim 2006 ); the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) for longwave radiation; the

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Derek D. Jensen

the operational WRF-based Four-Dimensional Weather (4DWX) system as run at DPG (4DWX-DPG; Liu et al. 2008 ). We used WRF, version 3.5.1, with 30-, 10-, and 3.3-km one-way nested domains centered over DPG and 36 half- η levels, with the lowest half- η level at ~15 m AGL. The vertical spacing varied from ~30 m near the surface to ~1250 m in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The physics packages included the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model longwave radiation parameterization ( Mlawer et

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Manuela Lehner, C. David Whiteman, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek Jensen, Eric R. Pardyjak, Laura S. Leo, Silvana Di Sabatino, and Harindra J. S. Fernando

– 11 . Haiden , T. , and C. D. Whiteman , 2005 : Katabatic flow mechanisms on a low-angle slope . J. Appl. Meteor. , 44 , 113 – 126 , doi: 10.1175/JAM-2182.1 . Hoch , S. W. , C. D. Whiteman , and B. Mayer , 2011 : A systematic study of longwave radiative heating and cooling within valleys and basins using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 50 , 2473 – 2489 , doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-083.1 . Hocut , C. M. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Slope

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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for longwave radiation (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ), and the Dudhia shortwave radiation scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ). The cumulus scheme is used only in the 27- and 9-km domains. a. Synoptic verification 1) The frontal system Sounding observations from the National Weather Service (NWS) are compared with the simulated temperature, geopotential height, and wind barbs on a weather map at the 850-hPa pressure level at 0000 UTC 2 June 2008

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

and Hicks (1970) , and Webb (1970) ; the Yonsei University PBL scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ); the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) for longwave radiation; the Dudhia (1989) scheme for shortwave radiation; and the WRF single-moment 5-class microphysics scheme ( Hong et al. 2004 ). The Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme ( Kain 2004 ) was used on the 36- and 12-km outer and middle domains, and no cumulus scheme was in use on the 4-km domain. Fig . 2. Telescoping nested configuration

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

-DPG system has 36 half- η levels, whose vertical spacing varies from ~30 m near the surface, with the lowest half- η level ~15 m AGL, to ~1250 m in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The use of one-way nesting is based on its simplicity and superiority over two-way nesting in unpublished test cases. The physics packages include the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) longwave radiation parameterization ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), Dudhia shortwave radiation parameterization ( Dudhia 1989

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Jason C. Knievel

near the surface, with the lowest half- η level at ~15 m AGL, to ~1250 m in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The physics packages include the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model longwave radiation parameterization ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), Dudhia shortwave radiation parameterization ( Dudhia 1989 ), Noah LSM ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), Yonsei University planetary boundary layer parameterization ( Hong et al. 2006 ), Lin et al. (1983) microphysics, new Kain–Fritsch cumulus parameterization

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

could be traced to errors in the initialization of soil moisture and parameterization of soil thermal conductivity. WRF forecasts of nocturnal surface temperature as well as the predicted ground heat flux, soil thermal conductivity, and near-surface radiative fluxes could be improved by initializing with measured soil moisture and replacing the Johansen (1975) parameterization for soil thermal conductivity in the Noah land surface model with that proposed by McCumber and Pielke (1981) for silt

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Matthew E. Jeglum, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek D. Jensen, Reneta Dimitrova, and Zachariah Silver

. C. Knievel , 2014 : Sensitivity of near-surface temperature forecasts to soil properties over a sparsely vegetated dryland region . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 53 , 1976 – 1995 , doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0362.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0362.1 Mlawer , E. J. , S. J. Taubman , P. D. Brown , M. J. Iacono , and S. A. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16 663 – 16 682

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