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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn McMurdie, and Robert Conrick

. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , . 10.1029/2008JD009944 James , C. N. , and R. A. Houze , 2005 : Modification of precipitation by coastal orography in storms crossing Northern California . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 3110 – 3131 , . 10.1175/MWR3019.1 Jankov , I. , J.-W. Bao

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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

conditions. Some surface parameters were initialized from other sources. 2 Model parameterization choices included the Noah LSM with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP; Niu et al. 2011 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) radiation scheme ( Iacono et al. 2008 ), and the Yonsei University (YSU; Hong et al. 2006 ) boundary/surface-layer scheme. A cumulus parameterization scheme (Grell–Freitas; Grell and Freitas 2014 ) was used in all but the 1.33-km domain. Only forecasts from the

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Aaron R. Naeger, Brian A. Colle, Na Zhou, and Andrew Molthan

observed and simulated precipitation (not shown). The physics options included the Eta similarity ( Janjić 1990 ), Noah model ( Tewari et al. 2004 ), and Mellor–Yamada–Janjić ( Janjić 1994 ) schemes for the surface layer, land surface, and planetary boundary layer (PBL), respectively, along with the Grell–Freitas ensemble cumulus parameterization (9 km grid only; Grell and Freitas 2014 ) and the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG; Iacono et al. 2008 ). Same model options were selected for

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William Ryan Currier, Theodore Thorson, and Jessica D. Lundquist

encompasses Washington State and uses the Thompson et al. (2004 , 2008) microphysical scheme without convective parameterizations for numerical weather prediction. Shortwave and longwave radiation simulations used the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ). WRF was run with 84-h forecasts that were initialized every 12 h. As in Minder et al. (2010) and Wayand et al. (2016a) , the 12–24 h forecasts were extracted from the 84-h forecasts and concatenated to provide a temporally

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

condition. A positive definite advection scheme is used, and a Rayleigh damper with damping coefficient of 0.0003 s −2 is applied to the top 4 km to prevent reflection of vertically propagating gravity waves. Although interactions of radiation with the mountain surface can result in the forcing of mesoscale mountain circulations, for example, mountain-valley winds, our focus is on the interaction of microphysics and dynamics. Thus, radiative transfer and surface heat flux parameterizations are

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , . 10.1029/2008JD009944 Kudo , A. , 2013 : The generation of turbulence below midlevel cloud bases: The effect of cooling due to sublimation of snow . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 52 , 819 – 833 , . 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0232.1 Lalas , D. P. , and F. Einaudi , 1974 : On the correct use of the wet adiabatic lapse rate in the stability

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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , . 10.1029/2008JD009944 Jaffrain , J. , and A. Berne , 2011 : Experimental quantification of the sampling uncertainty associated with measurements from PARSIVEL disdrometers . J. Hydrometeor. , 12 , 352 – 370 , . 10.1175/2010JHM1244.1 Joos , H. , E. Madonna , K. Witlox , S. Ferrachat , H. Wernli , and U. Lohmann , 2017 : Effect

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Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and F. Joseph Turk

blizzard storm with the mesoscale MM5 model and a delta-Eddington-type radiative transfer (RT) model to produce a storm-scale database for snowfall retrieval using AMSU-B observations. Noh et al. (2009) used a large number of snowfall profiles from airborne, surface, and satellite radars, as well as an atmospheric RT model ( Liu 1998 ) to generate a regional database for snowfall retrievals using the AMSU-B data. The study used the NESDIS Microwave Land Surface Emissivity Model ( Weng et al. 2001

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