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Franziska Teubler and Michael Riemer

has been developed by Nielsen-Gammon and Lefevre (1996) . These authors identified individual contributions to a geopotential-height-tendency equation by using piecewise inversion of quasigeostrophic PV. Nielsen-Gammon and Lefevre likened the advective tendencies associated with anomalies of low-level PV and boundary θ to baroclinic conversion and the tendencies associated with upper-level PV anomalies to the energy transfer by the divergence of the ageostrophic geopotential flux. They applied

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Tobias Selz and George C. Craig

gravity waves radiating from convective regions in upscale growth or errors will be discussed. 2. Experimental design This study employs a nonhydrostatic limited-area atmospheric model provided by the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) ( Baldauf et al. 2011 ). It has been applied for many years by the German Meteorological Service [Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)] for operational forecasting with a 7-km grid spacing (COSMO-EU) and a 2.8-km grid spacing (COSMO-DE). In the higher

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Martin Weissmann, Florian Harnisch, Chun-Chieh Wu, Po-Hsiung Lin, Yoichiro Ohta, Koji Yamashita, Yeon-Hee Kim, Eun-Hee Jeon, Tetsuo Nakazawa, and Sim Aberson

surface model, the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer, a simple cloud-interactive radiation scheme, and Rapid Radiative Transfer Model longwave radiation schemes. d. ECMWF IFS experiment description Two experiments were conducted with the spring 2009 version (cycle 35r2) of the ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS) for a period in September 2008 that covers the whole evolution of Sinlaku and Jangmi: a control run (NODROP) without any special observations (i.e., Pacific dropsondes, driftsondes

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

rotation and the sphericity of Earth [for an introductory-level text on Rossby waves see Rhines (2002) ]. Rossby waves are in distinct contrast to other types of waves such as gravity waves or sound waves, which rely on gravity or the compressibility of air, respectively, for their basic restoring mechanism. The atmospheric general circulation cannot be understood without reference to Rossby waves because they transfer energy, moisture, and momentum across large distances. This can generate

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