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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0006.1 . 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0006.1 Iacono , M. J. , J. S. Delamere , E. J. Mlawer , M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009944 . 10.1029/2008JD009944 Kepert , J. D. , J. Schwendike , and H. Ramsay , 2016 : Why is the tropical cyclone boundary layer not “well

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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

a time scale of 5 days. However, the physical mechanisms by which the upper-troposphere thermodynamic structure affects intensity in RCE with Newtonian cooling may be different than those on shorter time scales covering days to weeks with more complex radiative transfer ( Hakim 2011 ). PI theory has been shown to be approximately valid for observed TCs when the local time tendency is small such that a quasi-steady-state framework can be applied ( Bell and Montgomery 2008 ), although the

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Daniel J. Cecil and Sayak K. Biswas

to account for small calibration drifts. To characterize the cold target, a radiative transfer model is applied to an assumed surface state and atmospheric profile. The same radiative transfer model is used for the wind speed retrieval discussed in section 3 . The sea surface temperature is taken from the multiscale ultrahigh resolution sea surface temperature ( https://mur.jpl.nasa.gov ). Surface wind speeds for the cold calibration targets are taken from dropsondes, with wind speeds less than

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T. Ghosh and T. N. Krishnamurti

very brief description of some of this previous work is given below. Liu et al. (1997) have shown that neural network estimates of longwave net radiation at the sea surface are better than those found when using a regression approach. They used five input, one output, and two hidden layers. A longwave radiative transfer model was developed using ANN by Chevallier et al. (2000) . Ali et al. (2004) have used ANN to estimate ocean subsurface thermal structure from surface parameters. Estimation of

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Shixuan Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Christopher Velden

for TC applications is employed. This includes the modified GFDL surface-layer parameterization (e.g., Powell et al. 2003 ; Black et al. 2007 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ), the Noah land surface model (e.g., Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Mitchell et al. 2005 ), the modified Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation models (RRTMG) shortwave and longwave radiation scheme (e.g., Iacono et al. 2008 ), the Ferrier–Aligo microphysical parameterization (e.g., Ferrier et al. 2002 ; Ferrier 2005

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Daniel Hodyss, Joshua H. Cossuth, Yi Jin, Kevin C. Viner, and Jerome M. Schmidt

are math convention, where 0° is east (upshear), 90° is north, and so on. The extent of the outflow can also be identified using synthetic satellite observations. To calculate simulated WV brightness temperatures, the CM1 output was passed to the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM; Van Delst 2013 ; Grasso et al. 2008 ; Bikos et al. 2012 ; Jin et al. 2014 ). Given the relatively unrealistic clear-sky radiation properties of the idealized simulation, we are only going to focus on

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

shortly after the model initiation time or during their RI stages ( Liu et al. 1997 ; Chen et al. 2011 ; Fox and Judt 2018 ). The model physics schemes include (i) the new Thompson et al. (2008) cloud microphysics scheme; (ii) the Yonsei University PBL scheme with the revised MM5 Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ); (iii) the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Dudhia shortwave scheme for shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

internally to CM1r18 was not used, in part for simplicity to remove any diurnal forcing and since the current domain, roughly 6000 km × 4000 km, is very large. In lieu of a diurnally varying radiation forcing, the simulations were carried out with Newtonian cooling capped at 2 K day −1 . To calculate the respective simulated brightness temperatures—both IR and WV—the CM1 output was passed to the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM; Van Delst 2013 ; Grasso et al. 2008 ; Bikos et al. 2012 ; Jin et

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