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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

. Downward thermal emissions from dust were also observed to increase owing to the larger dust particle sizes ( Slingo et al. 2006 ). Haywood et al. (2005) compared the OLR from the Met Office unified operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with that determined from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrument onboard Meteosat-7 . By including observation-based optical properties of mineral dust in the radiative transfer calculations, Haywood et al. suggested that dust DRE LW can be

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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

dust. It is likely that the SAL, in general, tends to suppress convection. We postulate that interaction with the AEW is responsible for the rapid increase in water vapor (about 2 g kg −1 ) over the altitude range 2–6 km along the southern edge of the SAL that occurred between 19 and 20 August 2006. A rough estimate of the transfer of the latent heat energy during this period was made by using the latitudinal extent of the SAL (∼5°), the shape of the SAL ( Figs. 6 and 7 ), and the longitudinal

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Joël Arnault and Frank Roux

-moment mixed scheme and six classes of liquid and ice hydrometeors ( Pinty and Jabouille 1998 ). Turbulence is parameterized with the 1D scheme with a 1.5-order closure proposed by Bougeault and Lacarrère (1989) . Subgrid condensation is represented with the scheme proposed by Chaboureau and Bechtold (2005) , and radiative processes with the radiation scheme used at ECMWF ( Gregory et al. 2000 ). The model outputs are saved every hour. The diagnosed data contain the dynamic and thermodynamic variables as

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Zhuo Wang, M. T. Montgomery, and T. J. Dunkerton

calculated explicitly at the grid scale. Other physics parameterizations used include the WRF single-moment, six-class microphysics ( Hong and Lim 2006 ), Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme, Noah land surface scheme, Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) longwave radiation scheme, and Dudhia shortwave radiation scheme. To test the robustness of the results reported in Part I , sensitivity tests with different model physics and initial conditions were conducted. To save computational time, all

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Zhaoxia Pu, Xuanli Li, and Juanzhen Sun

D (1.33-km grid spacing), start at 0500 UTC 7 July 2005. The innermost domain D is a movable domain for keeping the storm near the center of the domain (from D1 to D2, as shown in Fig. 3 ). The model physics options include the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) of longwave radiation, Dudhia shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989 ), the WRF single-moment, six-class scheme (WSM6) microphysics ( Hong and Lim 2006 ), Grell–Dévényi ensemble cumulus ( Grell and Dévényi 2002

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Zhuo Wang, M. T. Montgomery, and T. J. Dunkerton

cumulus convection in the two outer grids; in the two inner grids (9-km and 3-km resolution), cumulus convection was calculated explicitly at the grid scale. Other physics parameterizations used include WRF single-moment, six-class microphysics ( Hong and Lim 2006 ) and the Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer scheme ( Noh et al. 2003 ), Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) longwave radiation scheme ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), and the Dudhia (1989) shortwave radiation scheme. Sensitivity

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Scott A. Braun, Michael T. Montgomery, Kevin J. Mallen, and Paul D. Reasor

Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) longwave ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and Dudhia shortwave ( Dudhia 1989 ) schemes. Initial and boundary conditions are obtained from 6-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses with 1° resolution using the WRF preprocessing system software. Experiments were run with multiple initialization times to determine which times provided the best reproduction of the evolution of Gert as verified by aircraft and satellite

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Oreste Reale, William K. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, and Eugenia Brin

the version known as GEOS-4 demonstrated remarkable capabilities in hurricane forecasting ( Atlas et al. 2005 ; Shen et al. 2006 ). The GEOS-5, however, contains a new physics (convective and boundary layer parameterizations) developed predominantly by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The changes in physics made the system quite different from its predecessor. In particular, the convective scheme is a GMAO-modified version of Moorthi and Suarez (1992) , and the radiative

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald Heymsfield, and Alexandre O. Fierro

1. Introduction Cirrus clouds at a given time cover about 20% of tropical latitudes and contribute significantly to regional and global radiation budgets ( Rossow and Schiffer 1999 ). Optically thick tropical cirrus are produced primarily through deep convection and generate as much as 25% of the earth’s net cloud radiative forcing ( Hartmann et al. 1992 ). The primary impact of thin versus thick cirrus is on the shortwave energy budget, and the albedo of these ice clouds depends on their

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

the Kain and Fritsch (1990) cumulus parameterization scheme for the 36- and 12-km resolution domains in which deep convection and a broad range of shallow convection are both parameterized; (ii) the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization with the Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme; (iii) the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) scheme for both longwave and shortwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ); and (iv) the Lin et al. (1983) cloud microphysics scheme containing

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