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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

parameterizations for microphysics (Kessler scheme), convection (Kain and Fritsch scheme), and radiative exchanges (presented below). The nonlocal Yonsei University (YSU) parameterization is used for the atmospheric boundary layer, with a scheme based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory for the surface layer (MM5 similarity revised scheme). The domain is a Cartesian channel of size L x × L y = 9216 km × 9216 km with a horizontal resolution of 18 km. It is periodic in the x direction, with free slip

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

. Hence, it is anticipated that any SST increase/decrease caused by biological heating might alter atmospheric properties considerably via intense turbulent heat exchange and vapor transfer from the sea. In addition, the lower-level air mass modified by SST efficiently spreads to the North Pacific because of steady westerly winds ( Yamamoto and Hirose 2011 ). Biophysical feedback over the Sea of Japan might thereby modify atmospheric (hence oceanic) processes more strongly than currently envisioned

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Hyodae Seo

WRF uses the modified Tiedtke cumulus parameterization scheme, including CAPE-removal time scale, shallow component, and momentum transport ( Tiedtke 1989 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ). The cloud microphysics is represented by the WRF single-moment 6-class scheme ( Hong and Lim 2006 ) and the planetary boundary layer by the Yonsei University (YSU) nonlocal scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ). The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Goddard scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1999 ) are used

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Shusaku Sugimoto

. Lacis , V. Oinas , and M. I. Mishchenko , 2004 : Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D19105 , doi: 10.1029/2003JD004457 .

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Kohei Takatama, Shoshiro Minobe, Masaru Inatsu, and R. Justin Small

. All results shown below have been subjected to high-pass filtering, unless otherwise stated. b. Model and experiments The regional atmospheric model used in this study is the International Pacific Research Center Regional Climate model (iRAM). The model includes dynamical processes based on hydrostatic formulation and physical parameterizations such as radiative transfer, shallow and deep convection, and turbulent mixing [see Wang et al. (2003) for details]. The model uses an E – ε turbulent

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

-following sigma levels between the surface and 50 hPa, with 10 layers below 750-m height. Cumulus convection is parameterized with the Kain–Fritsch convection scheme ( Kain 2004 ) and the cloud microphysical process by the single-moment 3-class scheme ( Hong et al. 2004 ). WRF is also run with the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Goddard scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1999 ) for longwave and shortwave radiation transfer. The Noah land surface model is used for the land surface processes

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Youichi Tanimoto

( Nonaka et al. 2009 ), which corresponds to the MABL depth. With the aerodynamic bulk formula for SHF, the heating rate can be written as where C H denotes the heat transfer coefficient and W = ( u 2 + υ 2 ) 1/2 is the surface wind speed, with u and υ representing the zonal and meridional wind velocities, respectively. We consider a situation where SHF is positive (i.e., upward) where SST > SAT, as typically observed in winter over the KOE region. For simplicity, both SST and SAT are

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

1. Introduction One of the most fundamental aspects of earth's climate is the latitudinal dependence of the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance and resulting equator-to-pole heat transport by the ocean and atmosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, the ocean and atmosphere carry nearly equal amounts of the heat northward in the tropics (up to ~15°N), while the atmosphere transports most of the heat poleward of ~40°N (e.g., Trenberth and Caron 2001 ). In between the two latitude bands, the

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

), geopotential height, horizontal wind velocity, wind stress, temperature, and humidity were taken from ERA-Interim at 1.5° resolution, while a ¾° resolution was used for SST, turbulent and radiative heat fluxes, and vertical wind. Masunaga et al. (2015) have shown that the improvement of the resolution of the prescribed SST in ERA-Interim (from 1° to ¼°) starting in January 2002 exerts substantial impacts on the representation of the marine atmospheric boundary layer, cloudiness, and precipitation. Hence

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

. Brown , M. J. Iacono , and S. A. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16 663 – 16 682 , doi: 10.1029/97JD00237 . 10.1029/97JD00237 Nakamura , H. , T. Sampe , A. Goto , W. Ohfuchi , and S.-P. Xie , 2008 : On the importance of midlatitude oceanic frontal zones for the mean state and dominant variability in the tropospheric circulation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L

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