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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

processes controlling energy and water fluxes and 2) the characterization of urban morphology and urban materials with respect to aerodynamic, radiative, and heat transfer properties (e.g., Terjung and O’Rourke 1980 ; Arnfield 2000 ; Masson 2000 ; Grimmond and Oke 2002 ; Martilli et al. 2002 ; Best 2005 ; Oleson et al. 2008 , hereinafter Part I ). We have developed an urban parameterization to simulate urban systems on a global scale ( Part I ) under a wide variety of climate and surface

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

, and each column maintains its own prognostic variables (e.g., surface temperature; Fig. 2 ). The processes simulated include 1) absorption and reflection of solar radiation; 2) absorption, reflection, and emission of longwave radiation; 3) momentum, storage, turbulent sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes; 4) anthropogenic heat fluxes due to traffic and waste heat from building heating/air-conditioning; 5) heat transfer in roofs, building walls, and road including phase change; and 6) hydrology

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