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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

progressively lower heights in the atmosphere (see Table 1 ). In the normal operation mode ( Waters et al. 2006 ), each of these Aura MLS channels yields more than 40 saturated radiance measurements at the bottom of each scan that can be used for GW analysis, compared to only six saturated measurements in the UARS MLS 63-GHz thermal radiance channels. According to radiative transfer theory, the saturated microwave radiance is a direct measurement of blackbody emission of atmospheric air at a particular

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David A. Schecter

radiation, a DVRW simultaneously stirs PV in its critical layer. Such stirring efficiently transfers angular pseudomomentum from the DVRW into the critical layer, and thereby acts to damp the wave. Damping will prevail over radiative pumping if the radial gradient of PV in the critical layer is sufficiently large ( SM04 ; SM06 ). Figure 2 illustrates the two potential fates of a DVRW in an MC. Section 4 will demonstrate that a precise growth rate formula for the DVRW is readily extracted from an

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Paul D. Williams, Thomas W. N. Haine, and Peter L. Read

interaction between the flow and a physical obstruction (e.g., generation in the wake of a ship; Lighthill 1978 ), which is the mechanism by which mountains generate atmospheric gravity waves ( Hines 1989 ). Direct forcing of the ocean by the atmosphere is a known source of oceanic gravity waves ( Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ). Finally, inertia–gravity waves are also radiated during the geostrophic adjustment of a hypothetical fluid ( Rossby 1938 ), in which geostrophic balance is approached from an

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Yonghui Lin and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The generation and propagation of gravity waves are essential and important dynamic processes within the atmosphere, and many studies have yielded a more thorough understanding of their origins and general characteristics ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ). Gravity waves play a prominent role in transferring large amounts of energy and momentum, which can have significant impact on the general circulation of the atmosphere (e.g., Holton and Alexander 2000 ). They also can initiate

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