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Juerg Schmidli, Brian Billings, Fotini K. Chow, Stephan F. J. de Wekker, James Doyle, Vanda Grubišić, Teddy Holt, Qiangfang Jiang, Katherine A. Lundquist, Peter Sheridan, Simon Vosper, C. David Whiteman, Andrzej A. Wyszogrodzki, and Günther Zängl

for the calculation of the surface fluxes ( u min ). Further abbreviations refer to solar radiation (SW), longwave radiation (LW), Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ), the Dudhia shortwave model (Dudhia; Dudhia 1989 ), thickness of the soil layers d , soil temperature T so , canopy temperature T c , skin temperature T sk , friction velocity u * , standard resistance based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory r a , and additional resistance to heat transfer r d (e

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C. David Whiteman, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Gregory S. Poulos

. Fitzjarrald , 2001 : The early evening surface-layer transition: Temporal and spatial variability. J. Atmos. Sci. , 58 , 2650 – 2667 . André , J. C. , and L. Mahrt , 1982 : The nocturnal surface inversion and influence of clear-air radiative cooling. J. Atmos. Sci. , 39 , 864 – 878 . Barr , S. , and M. M. Orgill , 1989 : Influence of external meteorology on nocturnal valley drainage winds. J. Appl. Meteor. , 28 , 497 – 517 . Businger , J. A. , 1973 : Turbulent transfer in the

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Juerg Schmidli, Gregory S. Poulos, Megan H. Daniels, and Fotini K. Chow

defined already at heights above about 2200 m (see Fig. 1 ). Therefore, the midlevel along-valley pressure gradient within the valley is easily dominated by external influences. In addition the valley is relatively wide, which further reduces the relative strength of local thermal forcings. To isolate the large-scale forcings from the local thermal forcing we undertook an EOP 2 simulation for which the radiative heat transfer and surface heat fluxes were turned off on all grids. Figure 14 compares

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Bowen Zhou and Fotini Katopodes Chow

conditions of strong winds and/or large cloud cover, which leads to reduced net radiative surface cooling ( Van de Wiel et al. 2003 ). On clear nights with weak winds, the SBL cools rapidly. Turbulent motions are strongly damped by buoyancy stratification. The SBL goes into a quiescent state, where turbulence is suppressed over prolonged periods greater than the time scale of the dominant eddies ( Nakamura and Mahrt 2005 ). In the intermittently turbulent SBL, energetic mixing events known as turbulent

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Patrick A. Reinecke and Dale Durran

well as potential temperature θ and Exner function π are marched forward in time with a split-time-level integration ( Klemp and Wilhelmson 1978 ). A full suite of physical processes are represented in the COAMPS simulations including the parameterization of the boundary layer, radiative transfer, and moist processes (see Hodur 1997 ). As with the linear Boussinesq system presented above, the model variables are staggered on a C grid. The metric terms are computed in an internally consistent

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Patrick A. Reinecke and Dale R. Durran

processes are represented in the COAMPS simulations, including the parameterization of the boundary layer, radiative transfer, and moist processes (see Hodur 1997 ). To resolve the multiscale aspect of downslope winds and mountain waves, three one-way interacting nests with 27-, 9-, and 3-km horizontal resolution are centered over the Sierra Nevada and Owens Valley ( Fig. 1 ). The outermost 27-km mesh encompasses the western North American continent as well as a large portion of the eastern Pacific

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James D. Doyle and Dale R. Durran

intervals beginning at 3 h 30 m. As in the 2D case, a series of subrotors develop along the vortex sheet and advect downstream. However, in contrast to the 2D simulation, there is no systematic transfer of positive η vorticity between the subrotors and the interior of the main large-scale rotor. Instead, most of the subrotors are swept downstream in the flow along the top of the main lee wave/rotor, and the interior of the large-scale rotor is filled with almost isotropic 3D turbulence. Some of

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