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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

’s effect on the overlying atmosphere. The model domain is 19°–45°N, 119°–151°E. The model uses a horizontal resolution of 15 km and has 39 sigma levels in the vertical. We choose the following set of parameterizations: the Thompson graupel microphysical parameterization ( Thompson et al. 2004 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), Dudhia schemes for longwave and shortwave radiation calculation ( Dudhia 1989 ), Mellor–Yamada–Janjić (MYJ) turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) scheme

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Takeaki Sampe, Hisashi Nakamura, Atsushi Goto, and Wataru Ohfuchi

) of the University of Tokyo and the Japanese National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). The model code has been optimized to achieve the best computational efficiency on the Earth Simulator ( Ohfuchi et al. 2004 , 2007 ). Physical parameterization schemes adopted in the model include Emanuel’s (1991) scheme for cumulus convection, a radiation transfer scheme by Nakajima and Tanaka (1986) , and Louis’ (1979) scheme for surface fluxes. To resolve the observed sharp SST gradient

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

the radiative flux and its computational optimization in the gaseous absorbing atmosphere. Ph.D. dissertation, Tokyo University, 121 pp . Sekiguchi , M. , and T. Nakajima , 2008 : A k -distribution-based radiation code and its computational optimization for an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 19 , 2779 – 2793 . doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2008.07.013 . Sekiguchi , M. , T. Nakajima , K. Suzuki , K. Kawano , A. Higurashi , D

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Mototaka Nakamura and Shozo Yamane

 ′ V  ′ ), meridional temperature flux ( V  ′ θ ′ ), and the three-dimensional transient wave activity flux defined on a zonally varying basic state by Plumb (1986) . The wave activity flux consists of the zonal and meridional advective fluxes (MU and MV), the zonal and meridional radiative fluxes (MR x and MR y ), and the radiative vertical flux (MR z ). The flux is essentially the Eliassen–Palm flux ( Eliassen and Palm 1961 ) in a zonally inhomogeneous mean flow ( Plumb 1986 ). The wave

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

1. Introduction Atmosphere–ocean interactions are exceptionally strong over western boundary currents and their eastward extensions (hereafter collectively WBCs): for example, the largest mean and variance at interannual and longer time scales of the net surface heat flux (Q net ) over the global ocean occurs in WBC regions ( Wallace and Hobbs 2006 ). Poleward heat transports by the ocean and atmosphere are comparable in the tropics, until the ocean transfers ~70% of its heat transport to the

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