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  • Radiative transfer x
  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

case, the sun’s heat is spread throughout the mixed layer and warms each parcel of water by O (0.1°C) by midafternoon. In the latter case, warming is concentrated in the top 2 m and, consequently, more of this heat is likely to be transferred from the ocean back to the atmosphere over a short time scale. In between these extremes heat transport is more complicated. Warming of the lower half of the mixed layer, for example, lags the surface solar forcing by several hours because it depends on the

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

layer, for example, can drop by two orders of magnitude from their nighttime values ( Brainerd and Gregg 1993 ; Moulin et al. 2018 ). Under stronger winds, DWLs are less surface intensified and their associated SST anomalies are smaller because shear-induced mixing enhances heat transfer away from the surface. Indeed, heat flux and the turbulence induced by shear are closely related, so parameterizing heat transfer will require knowledge of DWL-induced shear. For example, Sutherland et al. (2016

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