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Adrian M. Tompkins and Laura Feudale

model of ECMWF to revert to a seamless system with uniform model physics across all forecast time scales. Changes to the model included the implementation of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) shortwave radiation scheme ( Mlawer and Clough 1997 ) with the Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation (McICA) treatment of cloud overlap ( Pincus et al. 2003 ; Barker et al. 2008 ); modifications to the subgrid-scale mixing scheme, which were important for stratocumulus representation ( Köhler

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Fatima Karbou, Elisabeth Gérard, and Florence Rabier

radiometer observations. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4663 . doi:10.1029/2002JD003213 . English, S. , 2007 : The importance of accurate skin temperature in assimilating radiances from satellite sounding instruments. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 46 , 403 – 408 . Eyre, J. , 1991 : A fast radiative transfer model for satellite sounding systems. ECMWF Tech. Memo. 176, 28 pp. [Available from ECMWF, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, United Kingdom] . Felde, G. W. , and Pickle J. D. , 1995

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Sen Chiao and Gregory S. Jenkins

forecasts were integrated until 1200 UTC 22 August 2006. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme used for this study was the Yonsei University PBL scheme ( Hong and Dudhia 2003 ). The atmospheric radiation scheme accounts for longwave [i.e., the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM); Mlawer et al. (1997) ] and shortwave ( Dudhia 1989 ) transfers and interactions with the atmosphere, clouds, and the surface. Precipitation was produced from both grid-scale condensation and convection in the 25-km

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O. Bock and M. Nuret

Petite Echelle–Grande Echelle (ARPEGE) model of Météo-France have a tendency to migrate the ITCZ to the north (but not enough compared to the observations) during the first few forecast days ( Tompkins et al. 2005 ; Nuret et al. 2007 ; Agusti-Panareda and Beljaars 2008 ). Errors in the analyses are partly due to systematic errors in observations [e.g., radiosonde biases; Bock et al. (2007) ] or to deficiencies in the assimilation systems [e.g., radiative transfer calculations for satellite

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