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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

et al. 2007 ; Tao et al. 2007 , Iguchi et al. 2020 ) and shear conditions ( Khain et al. 2008 ; Marinescu et al. 2017 ; Chen et al. 2020 ) have shown different responses of the updraft magnitude for similar perturbations in CCN concentrations. In addition to different deep convective cloud types and atmospheric conditions, modeling studies on the effects of CCN on deep convective clouds have also used a diverse set of models with varying physical parameterizations and dynamical cores. As

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

, consistent with van den Heever et al. (2011) . Hence, the aerosol–cloud interaction for the diverse cloud regimes and their transitions throughout the cloud life cycle needs to be evaluated to assess the overall aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings on regional and global climate. Future statistical study on long-term observations and/or modeling simulations is also necessary to more accurately examine the comprehensive aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation. Also, case studies associated

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

2010 ). Regionally, cloud radiative forcings induced by aerosols can be much larger than global means. Fan et al. (2012b) suggested the aerosol invigorated effects on a deep convective cloud system that occur in the late afternoon over southeast China produced up to +5.6 W m −2 warming at TOA because of the enhanced longwave radiation trapped by the increased high clouds. Similarly, Y. Wang et al. (2014b , c ) quantified the aerosol-induced longwave cloud radiative forcing enhancement as being

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

precipitation ( Ban-Weiss et al. 2012 ). Furthermore, giant CCN (e.g., sea salt) might enhance warm-cloud microphysical processes and, thus, they could have various effects on typhoons (e.g., Johnson 1982 ; Feingold et al. 1998 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2012 ). Cotton et al. (2007) simulated the effects of aerosols on typhoons using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Their simulation was conducted based on three concentrations of CCN: 100, 1000, and 2000 cm −3 . The results revealed that a polluted

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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

1. Introduction Aerosols contribute directly to atmospheric variability and to Earth’s radiative balance through scattering and absorption of solar radiation. Aerosols also contribute indirectly through complex aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) indicates that while the mechanisms of aerosol direct effects are well known, the uncertainties in the estimates of aerosol direct and indirect effects are larger than any

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

. 2006 ). We include the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols with anthropogenic emissions and online chemistry to predict CN. In this version of the model, the chemistry module calculates the number and mass of aerosols that will activate as CCN based on hygroscopicity and supersaturation (Köhler curves), and provides this prognostic CCN to the microphysics module. Gas-phase chemistry is simulated with the Regional Acid Deposition Model, version 2, (RADM2) chemical mechanism ( Stockwell

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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

apparent effects of cloud, humidity, and dynamics on aerosol optical thickness near cloud edges . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D00K32 , doi: 10.1029/2009JD013547 . Jones , T. A. , S. A. Christopher , and J. Quaas , 2009 : A six year satellite-based assessment of the regional variations in aerosol indirect effects . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 4091 – 4114 , doi: 10.5194/acp-9-4091-2009 . Kaufman , Y. J. , I. K. Lorraine , A. Remer , D. Rosenfeld , and Y. Rudich , 2005 : The effect

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

, 2012 ; Van den Heever et al. 2011 ) and explained by a conceptual theory proposed by Rosenfeld et al. (2008a) and a revised theory ( Fan et al. 2013 ). Whether aerosols invigorate or suppress cloud and thunderstorms seems to depend on the joint effects of aerosol radiative and microphysical effects: suppression for absorbing aerosols and enhancement for hygroscopic aerosols ( Yang et al. 2013a , b ; Yang and Li 2014 ). Both observational and modeling studies have shown that the AIV can lead to

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

; Bollasina et al. 2011 , 2013 ; Bond et al. 2013 ; Grant and van den Heever 2014 ; Lee et al. 2014 ). ACI includes all the effects induced by cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN) ( Tao et al. 2012 ; IPCC 2013 ). Aerosols can impact precipitation through ACI by 1) producing more cloud droplets of smaller drop size that changes cloud microphysics ( Twomey 1977 ), 2) releasing latent heat as a result of changes in microphysical processes that modulate cloud dynamics (e.g., Wang 2005

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Daniel Rothenberg and Chien Wang

size-resolving aerosol–climate model . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D16309 , doi: 10.1029/2007JD009756 . Kumar , P. , I. N. Sokolik , and A. Nenes , 2009 : Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: Including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 2517 – 2532 , doi: 10.5194/acp-9-2517-2009 . Lance , S. , A. Nenes , and T. A. Rissman , 2004 : Chemical and dynamical effects on cloud droplet number: Implications for

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