Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • Regional effects x
  • Assimilation of Satellite Cloud and Precipitation Observations x
  • All content x
Clear All
Ronald M. Errico, George Ohring, Fuzhong Weng, Peter Bauer, Brad Ferrier, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Joe Turk

many of the physical parameterizations used in both forecast models and in relating observations to analysis fields. Modeling of some diabatic processes, particularly those associated with moist convection and the radiative effects of clouds, are still unreliable. Spatial distributions of clouds, particularly over warmer oceans, can vary substantially when different combinations of well-tested physical parameterizations are used. Even in regions where strong dynamics tend to generate significant

Full access
Graeme L. Stephens and Christian D. Kummerow

’s storm systems and, in turn, to the precipitation produced by these systems. Clouds further exert a profound influence on the solar and infrared radiation that enters and leaves the atmosphere. This influence is complex and not entirely understood, yet it has the potential to exert profound effects on climate and on forces that affect climate change ( Stephens 2005 ). It is for these reasons, among others, that the need to observe the distribution and variability of the properties of clouds and

Full access
Ruiyue Chen, Fu-Lung Chang, Zhanqing Li, Ralph Ferraro, and Fuzhong Weng

regional radiative effects of marine cloud liquid water. J. Climate , 8 , 2928 – 2946 . Grody , N. C. , J. Zhao , R. Ferraro , F. Weng , and R. Boers , 2001 : Determination of precipitable water and cloud liquid water over oceans from the NOAA-15 advanced microwave sounding unit. J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 2943 – 2954 . Han , Q. , W. B. Rossow , and A. A. Lacis , 1994 : Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data. J. Climate , 7

Full access
Ronald M. Errico, Peter Bauer, and Jean-François Mahfouf

1. Introduction At any time, approximately 50% of the earth is covered by clouds. Through their effects on both upward and downward transmittance of radiation, they profoundly affect the surface and atmospheric heat budgets. A small percentage of the clouds are precipitating, making up a key component of the earth’s hydrological cycle and, through release of latent heat of evaporation, an internal source of atmospheric heating. The accurate analysis of clouds and precipitation is therefore

Full access
Philippe Lopez

observed spatial distribution of clouds and their various effects on the environment, through latent heat release, radiative effects, and precipitation ( Browning 1993 ). Taking advantage of the precious information about moist processes brought by observing systems and laboratory experiments, numerical weather prediction models (NWPMs) and (climate) general circulation models (GCMs) have become able to describe clouds and precipitation with an increasing level of realism and accuracy. However, current

Full access
Fuzhong Weng, Tong Zhu, and Banghua Yan

fast RT model that accounts for scattering effects due to raindrops and ice particles ( Part I ; Chevallier and Bauer 2003 ; Bauer et al. 2006a , b ). In Part I , we discussed the 1DVAR approach in deriving atmospheric and surface parameters via the satellite data assimilation method. Note that 1DVAR retrievals that are assimilated in the ECMWF 4DVAR system succeeded in producing reasonable and coherent temperature and specific humidity increments, which correct the simulated radiances toward

Full access
Peter M. Norris and Arlindo M. da Silva

paid to predicted cloud properties, due to the slower time scales associated with cloud-induced radiative heating rates compared with the forecast duration. Nevertheless, clouds do have an important societal impact from day to day, in terms of their effects on diurnal temperature range and sunlight exposure. Furthermore, since NWP and GCM models have become more merged, typically sharing the same physics, advances in cloud parameterization in either climate or weather studies ought to benefit the

Full access