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D. M. Rodgers, K. W. Howard, and E. C. Johnston

street flooding, and vigorouslightning activity. The resulting economic effects ofjust a single MCC can be enormous in terms of deathsand injuries, property and crop damage, interruptionsto flight operations, power outages, etc. (see for exampleMaddox and Fritsch, 1982). The fact that very largemesosystems (MCCs) occur 30-40 times a year (basedon the last 5 years) indicate that they likely supply amajor portion of growing-season rain to the wheat,corn, and cotton belts (Fritsch et aL, 1981). Due

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Mark A. Lander and Michael D. Angove

the world. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) [the civilian meteorological center designated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to be the regional specialized meteorological center (RSMC) for the issuance of TC warnings in the Western North Pacific (WNP)] uses JTWC’s naming convention for tropical storms and typhoons. In addition to the JMA, the JTWC AOR contains numerous local and regional warning centers, including other WMO-designated RSMCs (e.g., Darwin, Fiji, New Delhi, La

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Mark A. Lander and Charles P. Guard

began weakening under vertical wind shear. The remaining low-level circulation weakened, lost latitude, and dissipated over water well east of the African coast. 4. Southern Hemisphere annual summary: (July 1996–June 1997) As in the north Indian Ocean, some differences exist between the JTWC TC statistics and those reported by the World Meteorological Organization–designated regional specialized meteorological centers (RSMCs) responsible for TC advisories in the Southern Hemisphere. Some of these

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Mark A. Lander, Eric J. Trehubenko, and Charles P. Guard

persisted in the western North Pacific ( Fig. 3 ). For more details on ENSO and its effects on global climate, see Rasmusson and Carpenter (1982) , Ropelewski and Halpert (1987) , and Trenberth (1997) . The annual-mean genesis location is related to the status of ENSO. It tends to be east of normal during warm phase and west of normal during cold phase. As expected for a cold phase of ENSO, the annual-mean genesis location duirng 1996 was west of normal ( Fig. 4a ), as it was during 1995. It was

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

day. As the effects of the upper-level low lessened, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm by 1200 UTC 2 September. The environment was still not very conducive for strengthening, however, and further intensification was rather slow. While moving around the western periphery of the subtropical high, Maria eventually became a hurricane at about 0600 UTC 4 September. Upper-level winds then became more favorable for strengthening, and Maria developed a well-defined eye on 5 September. It

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