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David M. Winker, Mark A. Vaughan, Ali Omar, Yongxiang Hu, Kathleen A. Powell, Zhaoyan Liu, William H. Hunt, and Stuart A. Young

1. Introduction Aerosols and clouds have important impacts on the earth’s climate through their effects on the radiation budget and the role they play in the water cycle. Clouds reflect sunlight back to space and trap outgoing thermal radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, modulating the radiative balance of the earth–atmosphere system. The net effect of these competing cooling and warming effects depends on the altitude of the cloud layers and their multilayer structures. Aerosols also

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Zhaoyan Liu, Mark Vaughan, David Winker, Chieko Kittaka, Brian Getzewich, Ralph Kuehn, Ali Omar, Kathleen Powell, Charles Trepte, and Chris Hostetler

backscatter coefficient at range z i with additional corrections for the effects of molecular and ozone attenuations applied. For practical use, the PDFs are implemented as a 100 × 100 × 20 three-dimensional array. The attenuated backscatter dimension of the PDFs is logarithmic, having 100 elements starting at ln( β ′) = −12 with an increment of 0.14. The attenuated total backscatter color ratio dimension also has 100 elements, starting at χ ′ = 0 with increments of 0.02. The midlayer altitude

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Kathleen A. Powell, Chris A. Hostetler, Mark A. Vaughan, Kam-Pui Lee, Charles R. Trepte, Raymond R. Rogers, David M. Winker, Zhaoyan Liu, Ralph E. Kuehn, William H. Hunt, and Stuart A. Young

climate system and the potential for global climate change ( Bernstein et al. 2007 ). The CALIPSO mission was designed specifically to address these uncertainties ( Winker et al. 2009 ). Clouds and aerosols are highly variable in space and time, and thus long-term and continuous satellite observations are essential for understanding their spatial distributions and climatic impacts on regional and global scales. The CALIPSO payload consists of three coaligned near-nadir viewing instruments: a 2

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Ali H. Omar, David M. Winker, Mark A. Vaughan, Yongxiang Hu, Charles R. Trepte, Richard A. Ferrare, Kam-Pui Lee, Chris A. Hostetler, Chieko Kittaka, Raymond R. Rogers, Ralph E. Kuehn, and Zhaoyan Liu

anthropogenic and natural categories but also addresses the effects of specific species such as black carbon on snow. When direct measurements of the speciation of particle samples can be made, aerosols are chemically classified by the predominant species (e.g., sulfates, black carbon, organic carbon, etc.). Aerosols have also been classified by their hygroscopicity as being water soluble or water insoluble. Such classification is particularly useful for studies of the aerosol effects on cloud formation

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