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Nicholas A. Bond, Meghan F. Cronin, and Matthew Garvert

sensible and latent heat, which themselves represent the primary energy source for tropical cyclones (e.g., Emanuel 1986 ). One might expect that anomalously warm SSTs would tend to be associated with delayed transitions for storms moving poleward, and that cold SSTs would be associated with hastened transitions, all other factors being equal. Thus, the effects of the regional SST on these storms may not have just local manifestations. Modifications in storm properties have potential impacts on the

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

anticyclones to counteract their poleward heat transport. This effective restoration of baroclinicity is referred to as “oceanic baroclinic adjustment” by Nakamura et al. (2008) , who have confirmed the anchoring effects of the frontal SST distribution on a storm track via idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments with an “aquaplanet” setting with or without zonally uniform frontal SST structures. AGCM experiments by Inatsu et al. (2003) and Brayshaw et al. (2008) also

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

mechanism that connects the Gulf Stream to the upper troposphere ( Hoskins and Valdes 1990 ; Nakamura et al. 2004 ). The climatic effects of the Gulf Stream are still under debate in the literature. Frankignoul et al. (2001) find no evidence that interannual variability in the Gulf Stream’s path has a direct impact on large-scale atmospheric circulation from an atmospheric reanalysis. Based on atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) experiments, Seager et al. (2002) suggest that the Gulf Stream

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

, and P. La Violette , 1981 : Air-sea interaction effects in the lower troposphere across the north wall of the Gulf Stream. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 109 , 1042 – 1052 . Taguchi , B. , H. Nakamura , M. Nonaka , and S-P. Xie , 2009 : Influences of the Kuroshio/Oyashio Extensions on air–sea heat exchanges and storm-track activity as revealed in Regional Atmospheric Model Simulations for the 2003/04 cold season. J. Climate , 22 , 6536 – 6560 . Tanimoto , Y. , S-P. Xie , K. Kai

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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

response. Such atmospheric effects, however, have never been documented in the literature, largely because of the lack of comprehensive observations. In the summer (June–August) of 2004, a large meander with 800–1000-km length took place for the first time since 1991 and persisted until the next summer. A small meander southeast of Kyushu that occurred in December 2003 triggered the subsequent development of a large meander ( Usui et al. 2008 ). This large meander event is the first and only event

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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

evaporative heat release in the KE region on the midlatitude climate ( Liu and Wu 2004 ; Frankignoul and Sennéchael 2007 ). Local air–sea interaction analyses have generally focused on either the phase relationship between the sensible (SHF) and the latent heat flux (LHF) and the SST on monthly time scales ( Liu and Gautier 1990 ; Konda et al. 1996 ; Murakami and Kawamura 2001 ; Bond and Cronin 2008 ), or the effects of the SST on the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) ( Nonaka and Xie

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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

atmosphere (e.g., Czaja and Frankignoul 2002 ; Ciasto and Thompson 2004 ; Watanabe et al. 2006 ). Observational studies, however, suffered from the short length of available data, insufficient to determine the contribution of ocean-to-atmosphere influences, which can be masked by energetic atmosphere-to-ocean influences. Numerical studies of atmospheric responses to midlatitude SST anomalies, on the other hand, showed diverse results, probably because the effects of eddy–mean flow interactions induced

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

. Conkright , T. O’Brien , C. Stephens , and B. Trotsenko , 1998c : Temperature of the Indian Ocean . Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1998, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 29, 166 pp . Barsugli , J. J. , and D. S. Battisti , 1998 : The basic effects of atmosphere–ocean thermal coupling on midlatitude variability. J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 477 – 493 . Bond , N. A. , and M. F. Cronin , 2008 : Regional weather patterns during anomalous air–sea fluxes at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO). J

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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

-tropospheric heat transport in the Pacific storm track . J. Atmos. Sci. , 54 , 1533 – 1543 . Taguchi , B. , H. Nakamura , M. Nonaka , and S.-P. Xie , 2009 : Influences of the Kuroshio/Oyashio Extensions on air–sea heat exchanges and storm-track activity as revealed in regional atmospheric model simulations for the 2003/4 cold season . J. Climate , 22 , 6536 – 6560 . Tokinaga , H. , Y. Tanimoto , S.-P. Xie , T. Sampe , H. Tomita , and H. Ichikawa , 2009 : Ocean frontal effects

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

) for the Pacific; Dong and Kelly (2004) for the Atlantic]: the former dominates at low frequencies, whereas the latter is important for shorter-term variability. Indeed, intermonthly to interannual fluctuations in the intensity of the winter monsoon strongly impact SSTAs over the marginal seas and the KOE region ( Fig. 4 ). The Q net is downward in summer when solar radiation dominates. The rate of warming in summer in the vicinity of the KE is influenced by the regional atmospheric circulation

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