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Patrik Benáček and Máté Mile

example, satellite-scan angle, air mass, and surface characteristics ( Dee 2005 ; Auligné 2007 ). Although the radiance bias correction is widely used in global DA systems, it has not been fully established in the regional DA because of difficulties in estimating the biases in limited-area domain. The bias correction quality is conditioned by a robust observation sample obtained under various meteorological conditions and scan-angle positions which is not fully assured within the limited domain

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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

camera mounted on the starboard/right wing of the GV. Shown are clouds observed along the flight path in the downstream direction (east to west) from (right) unbroken uniform stratus to (middle) mesoscale complexes to (left) shallow cumuli. More recent regional observational and modeling studies have also focused on the MBL cloud, aerosol, and precipitation structures in cloud regimes associated with the transition. During the Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean

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Vasubandhu Misra and Amit Bhardwaj

definition of the season for the following reasons: The traditional definition of the NEM season tied to three calendar months [October–December (OND)] does not account for the variability in the length of the season of NEM, which is significant. The OND season for NEM is based on a regional distributions of rainfall (over three provinces of India; namely, Tamil Nadu, Rayalseema, and Andhra Pradesh), which is not representative of the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall across the rest of India

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Robert Wood, Kuan-Ting O, Christopher S. Bretherton, Johannes Mohrmann, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Virendra Ghate, Chris Schwartz, Ed Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, and Patrick Minnis

the drizzle process. These results are broadly consistent with the Sandu and Stevens (2011) study, pointing to the need to understand what controls N d in the SCT. Several cases of spatial transitions from closed- to open-cellular convection over the southeastern Pacific Ocean were observed during the VAMOS Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study (VOCALS) Regional Experiment ( Terai et al. 2014 ) and showed that within regions of open cells, active Cu clouds that draw aerosol from the surface mixed

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2076:TEOVSO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2076:TEOVSO>2.0.CO;2 DeMaria , M. , and J. Kaplan , 1994 : A Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic Basin . Wea. Forecasting , 9 , 209 – 220 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009<0209:ASHIPS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009<0209:ASHIPS>2.0.CO;2 Frank , W. M. , and E. A. Ritchie , 2001 : Effects of vertical wind shear on the intensity and structure of numerically simulated hurricanes . Mon

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Kuan-Ting O, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

% confidence interval. Figure 12 shows the comparison of Eq. (3) with the values calculated by SCE, indicating that the bulk parameterization of Eq. (3) agrees fairly well with the SCE (correlation coefficient of 0.84). It should be noted that most of the bulk microphysics models divide condensate into cloud and rain and calculate the loss of in terms of the sum of autoconversion and accretion processes. The derived droplet loss rate from SCE [Eq. (2) ] combines both of these effects and describes

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Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Jorgen Jensen, Johannes Mohrmann, and Robert Wood

distinguishing individual effects, are less conclusive. An evaluation of space-based radar observations of precipitation along Lagrangian trajectories concludes that rain has little influence on the SCT time scale within the northeast Pacific, once the depth of boundary layer and cloud-top inversion strength are accounted for ( Eastman and Wood 2016 ). This could be interpreted to mean that precipitation adapts to the boundary layer depth on time scales of less than a day such that regardless of

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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

assimilation systems (i.e., Aksoy et al. 2012 , 2013 ) are designed to incorporate various observations from satellite-, aircraft-, ocean-, and land-based instruments, often evaluating the effects on the predicted TC track, intensity, three-dimensional structure, and surrounding environment by including or omitting certain observations ( Aberson et al. 2015 ; Christophersen et al. 2017 ). Assimilation and prediction systems rely heavily on airborne and satellite data, and sophisticated satellite

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

during each flight, with three main goals. Our first goal is to develop a composite description of the transition suitable for comparison with regional summertime climatology simulated by climate models, with an emphasis on those measurements unique to CSET. Our second goal is to briefly characterize day-to-day variability of the Sc–Cu transition and compare the space–time variation of cloud properties with our current understanding, including the correlation with “cloud-controlling factors” such as

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Jothiram Vivekanandan, Virendra P. Ghate, Jorgen B. Jensen, Scott M. Ellis, and M. Christian Schwartz

measurements must be corrected for attenuation effects before retrieving particle size and LWC. The attenuation correction is based on the A – Z power-law relations in section 4 . The HCR reflectivity was corrected for attenuation using the simple power-law Eq. (3) between reflectivity and attenuation ( Hitschfeld and Bordan 1954 ). Fig . 15. Data collected in zenith-pointing mode from GV between 1915 and 1920 UTC 24 Jul 2015 during CSET. The horizontal axis designates the time that the aircraft

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