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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Suzanne L. Gray, and John Methven

needed to fully understand the importance of diabatic processes in general for cyclone intensification in summer. This article has two objectives. The first objective is to quantify the heating (calculated as the change in potential temperature following an air parcel) produced during the occurrence of two contrasting summer extratropical cyclones and assess the effects of this heating in terms of changes to the circulation around the cyclones. In contrast to Dearden et al. (2016) , the analysis is

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

the British Isles . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , doi: 10.1002/qj.2345 , in press . Davies , T. , M. J. P. Cullen , A. J. Malcolm , M. H. Mawson , A. Staniforth , A. A. White , and N. Wood , 2005 : A new dynamical core for the Met Office’s global and regional modelling of the atmosphere . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 131 , 1759 – 1782 , doi: 10.1256/qj.04.101 . Durran , D. R. , and J. B. Klemp , 1982 : On the effects of moisture on the Brunt–Väisälä frequency . J

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G. Vaughan, J. Methven, D. Anderson, B. Antonescu, L. Baker, T. P. Baker, S. P. Ballard, K. N. Bower, P. R. A. Brown, J. Chagnon, T. W. Choularton, J. Chylik, P. J. Connolly, P. A. Cook, R. J. Cotton, J. Crosier, C. Dearden, J. R. Dorsey, T. H. A. Frame, M. W. Gallagher, M. Goodliff, S. L. Gray, B. J. Harvey, P. Knippertz, H. W. Lean, D. Li, G. Lloyd, O. Martínez–Alvarado, J. Nicol, J. Norris, E. Öström, J. Owen, D. J. Parker, R. S. Plant, I. A. Renfrew, N. M. Roberts, P. Rosenberg, A. C. Rudd, D. M. Schultz, J. P. Taylor, T. Trzeciak, R. Tubbs, A. K. Vance, P. J. van Leeuwen, A. Wellpott, and A. Woolley

-scale horizontal waves in temperature near the ground, with the surface cyclone center positioned to the east of the upper-level PV maximum (trough). This process is well understood, but the effects of PV anomalies produced by diabatic processes are much less clear. It is possible to attribute diabatically generated PV anomalies to the processes that produce them in a forecast model (e.g., Chagnon et al. 2013 ), but these diagnostics need to be tested by comparison with observations. A main goal of DIAMET is

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Jeffrey M. Chagnon and Suzanne L. Gray

-00242.1 . Davies , T. , M. J. P. Cullen , A. J. Malcolm , M. H. Mawson , A. Staniforth , A. A. White , and N. Wood , 2005 : A new dynamical core for the Met Office’s global and regional modelling of the atmosphere . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 131 , 1759 – 1782 , doi: 10.1256/qj.04.101 . De Vries , H. , J. Methven , T. H. A. Frame , and B. J. Hoskins , 2010 : Baroclinic waves with parameterized effects of moisture interpreted using Rossby wave components . J. Atmos. Sci

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H. F. Dacre, P. A. Clark, O. Martinez-Alvarado, M. A. Stringer, and D. A. Lavers

. Hodges , K. I ., 1995: Feature tracking on the unit sphere . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 3458 – 3465 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<3458:FTOTUS>2.0.CO;2 . Kim , J. , D. E. Waliser , and P. J. Neiman , 2013 : Effects of atmospheric river landfalls on the cold season precipitation in California . Climate Dyn. , 40 , 465 – 474 , doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1322-3 . Knippertz , P. , and J. E. Martin , 2007 : A Pacific moisture conveyor belt and its relationship to a significant

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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

America: A limited regional climatology and case studies . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 565 – 607 . Keyser, D. , and Pecnick M. J. , 1985 : A two-dimensional primitive equation model of frontogenesis forced by confluence and horizontal shear . J. Atmos. Sci. , 42 , 1259 – 1282 . Keyser, D. , Reeder M. J. , and Reed R. J. , 1988 : A generalization of Petterssen's frontogenesis function and its relation to the forcing of vertical motion . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 762 – 780 . Knox, J. A

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Ross N. Bannister

functions {for a single field, , where , , and where indicates matrix element} ( Gaspari and Cohn 1999 ). The subscript represents the rank of the moderation matrix. The abbreviations for localized ensemble (LE) and correlation function ensemble (CE) are explained below, and all abbreviations are summarized in Table 1 . 2 The main issues with this method are in the choice of for each localization scheme, in how it is implemented, and in any undesirable side effects of the localization, such

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Ben Harvey, John Methven, Chloe Eagle, and Humphrey Lean

found to be narrower than can be resolved by current NWP models. Therefore, the modeled frontal widths are typically set artificially by (implicit or explicit) numerical diffusive effects, rather than by resolved physical motions. The degree to which the prediction of associated high-impact weather is affected by this limitation is not understood. Operational local-area forecast models are now approaching convection-permitting grid spacings of O (1) km ( Clark et al. 2016 ). In such models deep

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