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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

about the multiscale effects of land–atmosphere interaction remain unclear, for example, what are the impacts of the high-frequency variability of soil moisture on the low-frequency variations of precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulations? The above review concludes that soil moisture affects precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulation relatively simultaneously via its effect associated with surface energy balance, and less concurrently through its memory effect. These

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

sink and its effect on the overlying circulation is much less dramatic. Kim and Kang (2007) also report here on a modeling study of the role of the Sierra Nevada on the regional water cycle. In the Sierra Nevada the thermal effects on the flow are less dramatic than in the Tibetan Plateau, particularly in the winter months when the ridge of mountains primarily functions as a mechanical barrier to the flow. In assessing this effect they used the Froude number to characterize the flow because it is

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

1. Introduction Investigating river basin water cycles in the western U.S. mountainous region poses great challenges for the hydrology community because the region’s multiscale terrain leads to complex atmosphere–land surface interactions and makes it difficult to produce accurate observations. However, over the western United States, especially in the southwest semiarid region, the limited supply and increasing demand for water resources require accurate estimates of regional and local

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

; Soong and Kim 1996 ; Kim 1997 ; Chung et al. 1998 ; Neiman et al. 2002 ; Kim and Lee 2003 ; Grubišić et al. 2005 ). Extreme elevation changes in the Sierra Nevada further complicate the regional water cycle through their influence on the local snow budget and cloud formation ( Kim 2001 ; Kim et al. 2006 ). Among these orographic effects, the low-level wind disturbances induced by these mountain ranges play the most fundamental role in determining the precipitation distribution in California

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Binayak P. Mohanty and Jianting Zhu

, regional scale) hydroclimatic modeling. Soil hydraulic properties have been studied extensively at the deep unbounded vadose zone where gravity flow dominates (e.g., Gelhar and Axness 1983 ; Yeh et al. 1985a , b , c ; Montoglou and Gelhar 1987a , b , c ; Desbarats 1998 ; Russo 1992 , 1993 , 1995a , b ; Yang et al. 1996 ; Zhang et al. 1998 ; Harter and Zhang 1999 ). Common to these analyses is the treatment of the flow and transport problem in unbounded domains assuming a uniform mean head

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

oceans, and nutrients and minerals over land are all transported and redistributed within the earth climate system ( Chahine 1992 ; Schlesinger 1997 ). Thus, water plays a crucial role in earth’s climate and environment. Most studies of the global water cycle deal with only some specific aspects. There are also many regional or basin-scale synthesized analyses of the surface water budget, as reliable data are often available only over certain regions. Relatively few studies (e.g., Chahine 1992

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Scott Curtis, Ahmed Salahuddin, Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Guojun Gu, and Yang Hong

, respectively. While the analysis over land is important in its own right, one must not forget that the water cycle is a global system, and climate variations of precipitation extremes must be quantified over ocean as well. In this paper we define precipitation extremes locally over both land and ocean on both monthly and daily time scales with merged satellite products, to help answer the following question: “Is ENSO related to a greater number of precipitation extremes globally and/or regionally?” 2. Data

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

. Since then, the temporal and spatial distributions of the heating field over the Tibetan Plateau and their impacts on weather and climate have become an active area of research and many significant results have been achieved. Recently, Yanai and Wu (2006) gave a thorough review of the past studies about the effects of the TP. The review starts with research from the 1950s on the jet stream, the warm south Asian high, and the early progress of TP research in China. The review then goes over studies

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